TheMu-Ji-Man Codes:(George Walker Bush)

George H. W. Bush

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This article is about the 41st President of the United States. For his son, the 43rd President, see George W. Bush.

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41st President of the United States

George H. W. Bush


41st President of the United States

In office
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993

Vice President

Dan Quayle

Preceded by

Ronald Reagan

Succeeded by

Bill Clinton

43rd Vice President of the United States

In office
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989


Ronald Reagan

Preceded by

Walter Mondale

Succeeded by

Dan Quayle

11th Director of Central Intelligence

In office
January 30, 1976 – January 20, 1977


Gerald Ford


Vernon A. Walters
E. Henry Knoche

Preceded by

William Colby

Succeeded by

Stansfield Turner

2nd Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office to the People’s Republic of China

In office
September 26, 1974 – December 7, 1975


Gerald Ford

Preceded by

David K. E. Bruce

Succeeded by

Thomas S. Gates

49th Chairman of the Republican National Committee

In office
January 19, 1973 – September 16, 1974

Preceded by

Bob Dole

Succeeded by

Mary Smith

10th United States Ambassador to the United Nations

In office
March 1, 1971 – January 18, 1973


Richard Nixon

Preceded by

Charles Yost

Succeeded by

John A. Scali

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas‘s 7th district

In office
January 3, 1967 – January 3, 1971

Preceded by

John Dowdy

Succeeded by

Bill Archer


Personal details


George Herbert Walker Bush

(1924-06-12)June 12, 1924
Milton, Massachusetts, U.S.


November 30, 2018(2018-11-30) (aged 94)
Houston, Texas, U.S.

Resting place

George Bush Presidential Library

Political party



Barbara Pierce
(m. 1945; died 2018)









Prescott Bush

Dorothy Walker


See Bush family


Yale University (BA)



Presidential Library

Military service


 United States


 United States Navy

Years of service



Lieutenant (junior grade)


Fast Carrier Task Force


World War II


Distinguished Flying Cross

Air Medal

Presidential Unit Citation


George Herbert Walker Bush (June 12, 1924 – November 30, 2018) was an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. Prior to assuming the presidency, Bush served as the 43rd Vice President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. As a member of the Republican Party, he had previously been a Representative, Ambassador and Director of Central Intelligence. During his career in public service, he was known simply as George Bush; since 2001, he has often been referred to as “George H. W. Bush”, “Bush 41”, or “George Bush Sr.” to distinguish him from his eldest son, George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States.

A scion of the Bush family, he was born in Milton, Massachusetts, to Prescott Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Bush postponed his university studies, enlisted in the United States Navy on his 18th birthday, and became the youngest aviator in the U.S. Navy at the time. He served until September 1945, then attended Yale University. Graduating in 1948, he moved his family to West Texas, where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. Soon after founding his own oil company, Bush became involved in politics. He was defeated in his first election, for the U.S. Senate in 1964 but won election to the House of Representatives from Texas’ 7th district in 1966. He was re-elected in 1968 and was defeated for election to the Senate again in 1970. In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, and in 1973, Bush became the Chairman of the Republican National Committee. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed Bush as the ambassador to China and later reassigned Bush to the position of Director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, but was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan. Reagan chose Bush as his running mate, and Bush became vice president after the Reagan–Bush ticket won the 1980 election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed administration task forces on deregulation and fighting the War on Drugs.

In 1988, Bush ran a successful campaign to succeed Reagan as President, defeating Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency: military operations were conducted in Panama and the Persian Gulf; the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, and the Soviet Union dissolved two years later. Although the agreement was not ratified until after he left office, Bush also signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Domestically, Bush reneged on a 1988 campaign promise and, after a struggle with Congress, signed an increase in taxes that Congress had passed. In the wake of a weak recovery from an economic recession, along with continuing budget deficits and the diminution of foreign politics as a major issue in a post-Cold War political climate, he lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton.

Bush left office in 1993. His presidential library was dedicated in 1997, and he was active—often alongside Bill Clinton—in humanitarian activities. With George W. Bush’s victory in the 2000 presidential election, Bush and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as president, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Bush’s second son, Jeb Bush, served as the 43rd Governor of Florida and sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2016.

Bush died on November 30, 2018, aged 94. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived American president in history, followed closely by Jimmy Carter, who was born a few months later. Bush’s death also leaves Carter as the only living former one-term American president.


1 Early life and education

1.1 World War II

2 Marriage and college years

3 Business career

4 Early political career (1963–1980)

4.1 Congressional years (1967–1971)

4.2 Ambassador to the United Nations (1971–1973)

4.3 Chairman of the Republican National Committee (1973–1974)

4.4 Envoy to China (1974–1975)

4.5 Director of Central Intelligence (1976–1977)

4.6 Other positions (1977–1981)

5 1980 presidential campaign

6 Vice presidency (1981–1989)

6.1 First term, 1981–1985

6.2 Second term, 1985–1989

7 1988 presidential campaign

8 Presidency (1989–1993)

8.1 Domestic policy

8.1.1 Economy

8.1.2 Education

8.1.3 Major initiatives

8.2 Points of Light

8.3 Daily Point of Light Award

8.4 Judicial appointments

8.5 Foreign policy

8.5.1 Panama

8.5.2 Soviet Union

8.5.3 Gulf War

8.5.4 Somali Civil War

8.5.5 Japan

8.5.6 Israel


8.7 Pardons

8.8 Honorary degrees

8.9 Awards and honors

8.10 1992 presidential campaign

8.11 Public image

9 Post-presidency (1993–2018)

9.1 Clinton presidency

9.2 George W. Bush presidency

9.3 Obama presidency

9.3.1 2016 election

9.4 Trump presidency

10 Personal life

10.1 Faith

10.2 Health and longevity

10.3 Sexual misconduct allegations

11 Death

11.1 Legacy

12 Presidential library

13 See also

14 References

15 Further reading

15.1 Primary sources

16 External links

Early life and education

See also: Bush family

George H. W. Bush, c. 1925

George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts,[1] on June 12, 1924, to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy (Walker) Bush. The Bush family moved from Milton to Greenwich, Connecticut, shortly after his birth. Growing up, he used the nickname “Poppy”.[2]

Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School in Greenwich. Beginning in 1938, he attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, where he held a number of leadership positions that included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, and captain of both the varsity baseball and soccer teams.[3]

World War II

Crewmen of the submarine USS Finback rescue Bush

The United States formally entered World War II in December 1941, following Japan‘s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Six months later, Bush enlisted into the U.S. Navy[4] immediately after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his eighteenth birthday. He became a naval aviator, taking training for aircraft carrier operations aboard USS Sable.[3][5] After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the United States Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943 (just three days before his 19th birthday), which made him the youngest naval aviator to that date.[4]

In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 (VT-51) as the photographic officer.[4] The following year, his squadron was based in USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname “Skin”.[6] During this time, the task force was victorious in one of the largest air battles of World War II: the Battle of the Philippine Sea.[4]

Bush in his Grumman TBM Avenger aboard USS San Jacinto in 1944

After Bush’s promotion to lieutenant (junior grade) on August 1, 1944, San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands. Bush piloted one of four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima.[7] His crew for the mission, which occurred on September 2, 1944, included Radioman Second Class John Delaney and Lt.(jg) William White.[4] During their attack, the Avengers encountered intense anti-aircraft fire; Bush’s aircraft was hit by flak and his engine caught fire. Despite the fire in his aircraft, Bush completed his attack and released bombs over his target, scoring several damaging hits.[4] With his engine ablaze, Bush flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member of the TBM bailed out;[8] the other man’s parachute did not open.[4] Bush waited for four hours in an inflated raft, while several fighters circled protectively overhead, until he was rescued by the submarine USS Finback, on lifeguard duty.[4] For the next month, he remained in Finback and participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, and their livers were eaten by their captors.[9] This experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, “Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?”[10]

In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. Through 1944, he flew 58 combat missions[8] for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, and the Presidential Unit Citation awarded to San Jacinto.[4] Bush was then reassigned to a training wing for torpedo bomber crews at Norfolk Navy Base, Virginia. His final assignment was to a new torpedo squadron, VT-153, based at Naval Air Station Grosse Ile, Michigan. Bush was honorably discharged from the U.S. Navy in September 1945, one month after the surrender of Japan.[11]

Marriage and college years

When Bush was still in the Navy, he married Barbara Pierce (1925–2018) in Rye, New York on January 6, 1945.[12] The marriage produced six children: George W. (b. 1946), Robin (1949–1953), Jeb (b. 1953), Neil (b. 1955), Marvin (b. 1956), and Doro (b. 1959).[11] At the time of his wife’s death on April 17, 2018, George H. W. had been married to Barbara for 73 years; theirs was the longest presidential marriage in American history.[13] They had become the longest-married presidential couple in 2000 when their marriage surpassed the 54-year (1764–1818) marriage of John and Abigail Adams.[14]

After Bush received his military discharge, he enrolled at Yale University. He earned an undergraduate degree in economics on an accelerated program that enabled him to graduate in two and a half years, rather than the usual four.[11] He was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and was elected its president.[15] He also captained the Yale baseball team and played in the first two College World Series as a left-handed first baseman.[16] Bush was the team captain during his senior year in 1948, and he met Babe Ruth before a game; the event took place only weeks before Ruth’s death. Like his father, he was also a member of the Yale cheerleading squad.[17] Late in his junior year, he was initiated into the Skull and Bones
secret society; his father Prescott Bush had been initiated into the same society in 1917. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa when he graduated from Yale in 1948 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics.[18]

Business career

After graduating from Yale, Bush moved his young family to West Texas. His father’s business connections proved useful as he ventured into the oil business, starting as an oil field equipment salesman[19] for Dresser Industries, a subsidiary of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., where Prescott Bush had served on the board of directors for 22 years.[20] While working for Dresser, Bush lived in various places with his family: Odessa, Texas; Ventura, Bakersfield and Compton, California; and Midland, Texas.[21] (According to eldest son George W. Bush, then age two, the family lived in one of the few duplexes in Odessa with an indoor bathroom, which they “shared with a couple of hookers”.)[22] Bush started the Bush-Overbey Oil Development company in 1951 and in 1953 co-founded the Zapata Petroleum Corporation, an oil company that drilled in the Permian Basin in Texas.[23] In 1954, he was named president of the Zapata Offshore Company, a subsidiary which specialized in offshore drilling.[24]

Shortly after the subsidiary became independent in 1959, Bush moved the company and his family from Midland to Houston.[25] He continued serving as president of the company until 1964, and later chairman until 1966, when he won election to the U.S. House of Representatives.[20] By that time, Bush had become a millionaire.[26]

Early political career (1963–1980)

Congressional years (1967–1971)

Bush in 1969

Bush’s career in politics began in 1963 when he was elected chairman of the Harris County, Texas Republican Party. The following year, he ran against incumbent Democrat Ralph W. Yarborough in the U.S. Senate race. He presented himself as a young Conservative Republican in contrast to the aging liberal Democrat Yarborough. He campaigned against civil rights legislation pending before Congress, stating that he believed it gave too much power to the federal government.[27] Bush lost the election 56% to 44%,[28] though he did outpoll Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater, who lost by an overwhelming margin to Lyndon B. Johnson.[27]

Bush and the Harris County Republicans played a role in the development of the new Republican Party of the late 20th century. First, Bush worked to absorb the John Birch Society members, who were trying to take over the Republican Party. Second, during and after the civil rights movement, Democrats in the South who were committed to segregation left their party, and although the “country club Republicans” had differing ideological beliefs, they found common ground in hoping to expel the Democrats from power.[29]

Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower with Bush

In 1966, Bush was elected to a seat in the United States House of Representatives from the 7th District of Texas; he won 57 percent of the ballots cast in a race against Democrat Frank Briscoe, who was the district attorney of Harris County.[30][31] Bush was the first Republican to represent Houston in the U.S. House.[20] Bush’s representative district included Tanglewood, the Houston neighborhood that was his residence;[32] his family had moved into Tanglewood in the 1960s.[33] His voting record in the House was generally conservative: Bush voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1968, although it was generally unpopular in his district. He supported the Nixon administration‘s Vietnam policies, but broke with Republicans on the issue of birth control, which he supported.[20] Despite being a first-term congressman, Bush was appointed to the powerful House Ways and Means Committee, where he voted to abolish the military draft.[26] He was elected to a second term in 1968.[34]

In 1970, Nixon convinced Bush to relinquish his House seat in order to run for the Senate against Ralph Yarborough, who was a fierce Nixon critic. In the Republican primary, Bush easily defeated conservative Robert J. Morris by a margin of 87.6% to 12.4%.[35] Nixon went to Longview, Texas, to campaign for Bush and gubernatorial candidate Paul Eggers, a Dallas lawyer who was a close friend of U.S. Senator John G. Tower.[36] Former Congressman Lloyd Bentsen, a more moderate Democrat and native of Mission in south Texas, defeated Yarborough in the Democratic primary.[26] Yarborough endorsed Bentsen, who defeated Bush, 53.4 to 46.6%.[37]

Ambassador to the United Nations (1971–1973)

Bush as ambassador to the United Nations, 1971

Following his 1970 loss, Bush was well known as a prominent Republican businessman from the “Sun Belt“, a group of states in the Southern part of the country.[26] Nixon noticed and appreciated the sacrifice Bush had made of his Congressional position,[20] so he appointed him Ambassador to the United Nations.[18] He was confirmed unanimously by the Senate, and served for two years, beginning in 1971.[20]

Chairman of the Republican National Committee (1973–1974)

Amidst the Watergate scandal, Nixon asked Bush to become chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973.[18] Bush accepted, and held this position when the popularity of both Nixon and the Republican Party plummeted.[38] He defended Nixon steadfastly, but later as Nixon’s complicity became clear, Bush focused more on defending the Republican Party, while still maintaining loyalty to Nixon. As chairman, Bush formally requested that Nixon eventually resign for the good of the Republican party.[20] Nixon did this on August 9, 1974; Bush noted in his diary that “There was an aura of sadness, like somebody died… The [resignation] speech was vintage Nixon—a kick or two at the press—enormous strains. One couldn’t help but look at the family and the whole thing and think of his accomplishments and then think of the shame… [President Gerald Ford’s swearing-in offered] indeed a new spirit, a new lift.”[39]

Envoy to China (1974–1975)

Bush as U.S. Liaison to China, circa 1975

President Gerald Ford appointed Bush to be Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office in the People’s Republic of China. Since the United States at the time maintained official relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and not the People’s Republic of China, the Liaison Office did not have the official status of an embassy and Bush did not formally hold the position of “ambassador”, though he unofficially acted as one. The 14 months that he spent in China were largely seen as beneficial for U.S.-China relations.[20]

After Ford assumed the presidency, Bush was under serious consideration for being nominated as vice president. Ford eventually narrowed his list to Nelson Rockefeller and Bush. White House Chief of Staff
Donald Rumsfeld reportedly preferred Rockefeller over Bush. Rockefeller was finally named and confirmed.[40]

Bush was again passed over for the vice presidency by Ford when the president chose Bush’s future presidential rival, Senator Bob Dole, to replace Rockefeller on the 1976 presidential ticket.[41]

Director of Central Intelligence (1976–1977)

Bush, as CIA Director, listens at a meeting following the assassinations in Beirut of Francis E. Meloy Jr. and Robert O. Waring, 1976.

In 1976 Ford brought Bush back to Washington to become Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), replacing William Colby.[42] He served in this role for 357 days, from January 30, 1976, to January 20, 1977.[43] The CIA had been rocked by a series of revelations, including those based on investigations by the Church Committee regarding illegal and unauthorized activities by the CIA, and Bush was credited with helping to restore the agency’s morale.[44] In his capacity as DCI, Bush gave national security briefings to Jimmy Carter both as a presidential candidate and as president-elect, and discussed the possibility of remaining in that position in a Carter administration,[45] but did not do so. He was succeeded by Deputy Director of Central Intelligence E. Henry Knoche, who served as acting Director of Central Intelligence until Stansfield Turner was confirmed.[46]

During Bush’s year in charge of the CIA, the U.S. national security apparatus actively supported Operation Condor operations and right-wing military dictatorships in Latin America.[47][48][49]

Other positions (1977–1981)

After Democrat Jimmy Carter took power in 1977, Bush became chairman on the Executive Committee of the First International Bank in Houston.[50] He later spent a year as a part-time professor of Administrative Science at Rice University‘s Jones School of Business beginning in 1978, the year it opened; Bush said of his time there, “I loved my brief time in the world of academia.”[51] Between 1977 and 1979, he was a director of the Council on Foreign Relations foreign policy organization.[52]

1980 presidential campaign

See also: United States presidential election, 1980

1980 campaign logo

Bush had decided in the late 1970s that he was going to run for president in 1980; in 1979, he attended 850 political events (“cattle calls“) and traveled more than 250,000 miles (400,000 km) to campaign for the nation’s highest office. In the contest for the Republican Party nomination, Bush stressed his wide range of government experience, while competing against rivals Senator Howard Baker of Tennessee, Senator Bob Dole of Kansas, Congressman John Anderson of Illinois (who would later run as an independent), Congressman Phil Crane, also of Illinois, former Governor John Connally of Texas, former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen, and the front-runner Ronald Reagan, former actor, and Governor of California.[40]

Ronald Reagan, moderator John Breen, and Bush participate in the Nashua, New Hampshire Presidential Debate, 1980

At the outset of the 1980 primary race, Bush focused heavily on winning the January 21 Iowa caucuses, including 31 visits to the state; five months earlier he had won the Iowa Straw Poll.[53] Reagan, however, far ahead in the polls, campaigned little. Bush represented the centrist wing in the GOP, whereas Reagan represented conservatives. Bush famously labeled Reagan’s supply side-influenced plans for massive tax cutsvoodoo economics“.[54] His strategy proved useful, to some degree, as he won in Iowa with 31.5% to Reagan’s 29.4%. After the win, Bush stated that his campaign was full of momentum, or “the Big Mo“.[55]

As a result of the loss, Reagan replaced his campaign manager, reorganized his staff, and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary. The two men agreed to a debate in the state, organized by the Nashua Telegraph, but paid for by the Reagan campaign. Reagan invited the other four candidates as well, but Bush refused to debate them, and eventually they left. The debate proved to be a pivotal moment in the campaign; when the moderator, John Breen, ordered Reagan’s microphone turned off, his angry response, “I am paying for this microphone,” struck a chord with the public. Bush ended up losing New Hampshire’s primary with 23% to Reagan’s 50%. Bush lost most of the remaining primaries as well, and formally dropped out of the race in May of that year.[40]

With his political future in doubt, Bush sold his house in Houston and bought his grandfather’s estate in Kennebunkport, Maine, known as “Walker’s Point”.[56] At the Republican Convention, Reagan made the last-minute decision to select Bush as his vice presidential nominee, placing him on the winning Republican presidential ticket of 1980.[57][58]

Vice presidency (1981–1989)

See also: Presidency of Ronald Reagan

First term, 1981–1985

As vice president, Bush generally maintained a typically low profile while he recognized the constitutional limits of the office; he avoided decision-making or criticizing Reagan in any way. As had become customary, he and his wife moved into the Vice President’s residence at Number One Observatory Circle, about two miles from the White House. After selling the house in Tanglewood, the Bushes declared a room in The Houstonian Hotel in Houston as their official voting address.[32] The Bushes attended a large number of public and ceremonial events in their positions, including many state funerals, which became a common joke for comedians. Mrs. Bush found the funerals largely beneficial, saying, “George met with many current or future heads of state at the funerals he attended, enabling him to forge personal relationships that were important to President Reagan.” As the President of the Senate, Bush stayed in contact with members of Congress and kept the president informed on occurrences on Capitol Hill.[40]

Vice President Bush official portrait (1981)

On March 30, 1981 (early into the administration), Reagan was shot and seriously wounded by John Hinckley Jr. in Washington, D.C. Bush was in Fort Worth, Texas, and immediately flew back to Washington because he was next in line to the presidency. Reagan’s cabinet convened in the White House Situation Room, where they discussed various issues, including the availability of the Nuclear Football. When Bush’s plane landed, he was advised by his aides to proceed directly to the White House by helicopter as an image of the government still functioning despite the attack. Bush rejected the idea, responding, “Only the President lands on the South Lawn.”[40] This made a positive impression on Reagan,[40] who recovered and returned to work within two weeks. From then on, the two men would have regular Thursday lunches in the Oval Office.[59]

At a Republican fundraiser in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in June 1981, Bush stated that President Reagan was unwilling to make additional tax cut compromises with Congress.[60]

In September 1981, Bush traveled to Mexico to participate in Independence Day celebrations there. He said in a statement that President Reagan was “deeply committed to strengthening the friendship and cooperation between our countries”.[61]

In November 1981, Bush toured western Texas to offer support for beleaguered Director of the Office of Management and Budget
David Stockman, who he believed was intelligent but needed to adjust to managing journalists.[62]

During a December 1981 interview, Bush stated that he was convinced news leaks by unnamed administration officials were correct and had succeeded in hurting President Reagan: “I really feel we have been undisciplined in this White House. We’ve not served the president well by these leaks.”[63]

On April 28, 1982, Bush met with Prime Minister of Singapore
Lee Kuan Yew for a wide-ranging discussion that included speaking about regional security, the world economy, and Soviet expansionism in Southeast Asia,[64] and later that month, Bush confirmed he was considering traveling to China during his impending trip to Asia and the Pacific amid a news conference in Seoul, South Korea.[65]

President Ronald Reagan with Bush

In November 1982, Bush toured Africa, the first instance of American government visiting there since the Reagan administration began. Bush told reporters that while he would allow for heads of state to dictate how each meeting would transpire, there was an expectation on his part for discussions on the independence of Namibia, adding that the US was going to retain the position of no settlement in Namibia until Cuban troops in Angola were withdrawn.[66] On November 15, Bush met with United States Secretary of State
George P. Shultz and Yuri Andropov in Moscow, Russia, to discuss human rights and arms reductions. Bush later said, “The meeting was frank, cordial and substantive. It gave both sides the opportunity to exchange views on the state of their relations.”[67]

At the end of January 1983, Bush began a seven-day tour of West Europe intended to promote the arms reduction commitment being advocated for by the Reagan administration.[68] During a February 8 news conference in Paris, Bush said the US’s invitations for the Soviet Union to consent to a reduction in medium-range missiles were supported by Western Europe, which he stated had also consented to the deployment of new American missiles starting in the latter part of the year.[69] The following day, Bush defended American nuclear arms policy when answering British Secretary General of the Committee on Nuclear Disarmament Bruce Kent.[70]

In September 1983, Bush met with President of Romania
Nicolae Ceaușescu, insisting during the meeting that President Reagan intended to push for arms reductions at the Geneva talks with the Soviet Union.[71] Shortly thereafter, Bush said the US wanted better relations with all countries within the East Bloc though stressed NATO would retaliate in the event of any threatening of European military stability by the Soviets,[72] and the vice president assailed the Soviet Union for the Berlin Wall and destroying the Korean Air Lines jetliner.[73]

Reagan and Bush in a meeting to discuss the United States’ invasion of Grenada with a group of bipartisan members of Congress in October 1983

In December 1983 Bush flew to El Salvador and warned that country’s military leaders to end their death squads and hold fully free elections or face the loss of U.S. aid. “It is not just the President, it is not just me or the Congress. If these death-squad murders continue, you will lose the support of the American people and that would indeed be a tragedy.”[74] Bush’s aides feared for his safety and thought about calling the meeting off when they discovered apparent blood stains on the floor of the presidential palace of Álvaro Magaña. Bush was never told of the aides’ concerns and a tense meeting was held in which some of Magaña’s personnel brandished semiautomatic weapons and refused requests to take them outside.[75]

Bush was assigned by Reagan to chair two special task forces, on deregulation and international drug smuggling. The deregulation task force reviewed hundreds of rules, making specific recommendations on which ones to amend or revise, in order to curb the size of the federal government. The drug smuggling task force coordinated federal efforts to reduce the quantity of drugs entering the United States. Both were popular issues with conservatives, and Bush, largely a moderate, began courting them through his work.[40]

In January 1984, Bush reported Reagan’s stance on Moscow had projected a strong image toward the Soviets as well as heightened the possibility of an arms agreement.[76]

On February 10, 1984, President Reagan designated Bush to lead the American delegation to the funeral of Yuri V. Andropov and convey America’s “hope for an improved dialogue and cooperation which can lead to a more constructive relationship between our two countries.”[77] On February 24, Bush spoke on the progress made in Grenada as a result of the Reagan administration coming into play following Vietnam, Watergate, and the presidency of Jimmy Carter while talking to the American Soybean Association: “When the president faced this crisis in Grenada he didn’t wait until we were taken hostage, he acted before the crisis became a humiliation.”[78]

On June 14, 1984, Bush cast a tie-breaking vote in the Senate in favor of the 10-warhead MX missile.[79]

In September 1984, Bush said President Reagan likely would state his responsibility for the failure to protect the Beirut American embassy from bombing but stressed the difficulty of pressure.[80]

Second term, 1985–1989

International policy with the Soviet Union was a critical component of the political landscape in the late 1980s. Vice President Bush can be seen here standing with President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, on the New York waterfront, 1988

Reagan and Bush ran for reelection in 1984. The Democratic opponent, Walter Mondale, made history by choosing a woman, New York Representative Geraldine Ferraro, as his running mate. She and Bush squared off in a single televised vice presidential debate.[81] Ferraro served as a contrast to the Ivy-League educated Bush; she represented a “blue-collar” district in Queens, New York. This distinction and her popularity among female journalists left Bush at a disadvantage. Regardless, the Reagan-Bush ticket won in a landslide against the Mondale-Ferraro ticket. Early into his second term as vice president, Bush and his aides were planning a run for the presidency in 1988. By the end of 1985, a committee had been established and over two million dollars were raised for Bush.[40]

In mid-March 1985, Bush attended the funeral of Konstantin Chernenko, telling reporters in Geneva, Switzerland, that he had “brought a message with me to Moscow from President Reagan. It is a message of peace.”[82] During this trip, Bush pledged the US would proceed with a planned military pullout from Grenada during a rally,[83] met with President of Nicaragua
Daniel Ortega for discussions on the four-point plan for peace of the Sandinista government in Brazil,[84] and stated America would be committed in combatting the Sandinista regime within Nicaragua during an address in Honduras.[85]

On July 13, 1985, Bush became the first vice president to serve as acting president when Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon; Bush served as the acting president for approximately eight hours.[86]

In October 1985, Bush toured Pearl Harbor while he received a briefing on Pacific Fleet operations.[87] He told reporters of an improvement in Sino-American relations and disclosed Taiwan as a major topic in his discussions with Chinese officials.[88]

In 1986, the Reagan administration was shaken by a scandal when it was revealed that administration officials had secretly arranged weapon sales to Iran. The officials had used the proceeds to fund the anti-communist Contras in Nicaragua, which was a direct violation of law. The scandal became known as the Iran–Contra affair. When news of the public embarrassment broke to the media, Bush, like Reagan, stated that he had been “out of the loop” and unaware of the diversion of funds,[89] although this was later questioned.[90] His diaries from that time stated “I’m one of the few people that know fully the details” and as a result of six pardons by Bush, the independent counsel’s final report on the Iran–Contra affair pointedly noted: “The criminal investigation of Bush was regrettably incomplete.”[91]

In March 1986, Bush outlined the government’s policy on the combating of terrorism. In an interagency task force report presented to President Reagan, Bush publicly stated that the strategy of the federal government was to retaliate without “wantonly” terminating human lives.[92] In early April 1986, Bush was hoping to preserve peace when he traveled to the Persian Gulf.[93]

In May, Bush underwent a procedure to remove a malignant growth from his left cheek. His spokesman, Marlin Fitzwater, said that doctors had found the growth weeks earlier.[94]

British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Bush, 1986

During an appearance at a conference in January 1987, Bush confirmed the torture and subsequent murder of CIA agent William Francis Buckley by Islamic Jihad.[95]

In February 1987, Bush addressed the National Religious Broadcasters, warning the group that intolerance was unacceptable and particularly called for racial tolerance. “We must let our children know hatred has no place in America. The Ku Klux Klan is an embarrassment to Christ, whose gospel is love, and an embarrassment to our nation, whose gospel is freedom.”[96]

In March 1987, Bush announced the resignation of advisor Fred Khedouri as well as implementation of Charles Greenleaf in the same role,[97] and visited a drug rehabilitation center during a two-day swing through Florida, expressing the view that education was the sole means of ending drug issues throughout the US.[98]

Bush officially opened the 1987 Pan American Games in Indianapolis on August 8, where his presence led to security delays.[99][100]

In September 1987, Bush embarked on a month long trip to Poland and European allied countries.[101] On September 22, Bush cast a tie breaking vote in the Senate to save the Strategic Defense Initiative from receiving a 800 million cut in funding.[102] On September 25, Bush reemployed Peter Teeley as Director of Communications for his office and presidential campaign.[103] On September 28, Bush delivered a televised address pledging that the US would forever be aligned with Poland.[104]

Bush’s campaign director Roger Ailes and others were concerned that Bush was seen as a “wimp.” Bush put that image to rest when he displayed evident fury during an interview with Dan Rather.[40]

On July 3, 1988, the guided missile cruiser
USS Vincennes accidentally shot down Iran Air Flight 655, killing 290 passengers. Bush said that he would “never apologize for the United States of America. Ever. I don’t care what the facts are.”[105]

1988 presidential campaign

Main article: 1988 United States presidential election

Campaign logo

John Ashcroft and Vice President Bush campaign in St. Louis, Missouri, 1988

In the January 26, 1987, issue of Time magazine, journalist Robert Ajemian reported in an article entitled “Where Is the Real George Bush?” that one of Bush’s friends had urged him to spend several days at Camp David thinking through his plans for his prospective presidency. Bush responded in exasperation, “Oh, the vision thing.”[106] This oft-cited quote became a shorthand for the charge that Bush failed to contemplate or articulate important policy positions in a compelling and coherent manner. The phrase has since become a metonym for any politician’s failure to incorporate a greater vision in a campaign, and has often been applied in the media to other politicians or public figures.[107][108]

As early as 1985, Bush had been planning a presidential run; he entered the Republican primary for President of the United States in October 1987.[40] His challengers for the Republican presidential nomination included U.S. Senator Bob Dole of Kansas, U.S. Representative Jack Kemp of New York, former Governor Pete du Pont of Delaware, and conservative Christian televangelist
Pat Robertson.[109][110]

Bush was considered the early frontrunner for the nomination, but he came in third in the Iowa caucus, behind winner Dole and runner-up Robertson.[111] Much as Reagan had done in 1980, Bush reorganized his staff and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary.[40] With Dole ahead in New Hampshire, Bush ran television commercials portraying the senator as a tax raiser;[112] he rebounded to win the state’s primary. Following the primary, Bush and Dole had a joint media appearance, when the interviewer asked Dole if he had anything to say to Bush, Dole said, in response to the ads, “yeah, stop lying about my record!” in an angry tone. This is thought to have hurt Dole’s campaign to Bush’s benefit. Bush continued seeing victory, winning many Southern primaries as well.[20] Once the multiple-state primaries such as Super Tuesday began, Bush’s organizational strength and fundraising lead were impossible for the other candidates to match, and the nomination was his.[26]

As the 1988 Republican National Convention approached, there was much speculation who Bush would choose to be his running mate. He selected little-known U.S. Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana, who was favored by conservatives. Despite Reagan’s popularity, Bush trailed Democratic nominee Michael Dukakis, then Governor of Massachusetts, in most polls.[113]

Bush was occasionally criticized for his lack of eloquence when compared to Reagan, but he delivered a well-received speech at the 1988 Republican National Convention. Known as the “thousand points of light” speech, the presentation described Bush’s vision of America. He endorsed the Pledge of Allegiance, capital punishment, and gun rights, and drew upon his long-standing Christian beliefs to support both prayer in schools and oppose abortion.[113] The speech at the convention included Bush’s famous pledge: “Read my lips: no new taxes.”[114]

The 1988 presidential electoral votes by state

The general election campaign between the two men was described in 2008 as one of the dirtiest in modern times.[114] Bush blamed Dukakis for polluting the Boston Harbor as the Governor of Massachusetts.[20] Bush also pointed out that Dukakis was opposed to a law that would require all students to say the Pledge of Allegiance, a topic well covered in Bush’s nomination acceptance speech.[113]

Dukakis’s unconditional opposition to capital punishment led to a pointed question being asked during the presidential debates. Moderator Bernard Shaw asked Dukakis if he would hypothetically support the death penalty if his wife, Kitty, were raped and murdered.[115] Dukakis’s response of no, as well as a provocative ad about convicted felon Willie Horton, contributed toward Bush’s characterization of Dukakis as “soft on crime”.[20]

Bush defeated Dukakis and his running mate, Lloyd Bentsen, in the Electoral College, by 426 to 111 (Bentsen received one vote from a faithless elector).[114] In the nationwide popular vote, Bush took 53.4% of the ballots cast while Dukakis received 45.6%.[20] Bush became the first serving vice president to be elected president since Martin Van Buren in 1836 as well as the first person to succeed someone from his own party to the presidency via election to the office in his own right since Herbert Hoover in 1929.[40]

Presidency (1989–1993)

Main article: Presidency of George H. W. Bush

Chief Justice William Rehnquist administers the Presidential Oath of Office to George H. W. Bush during his January 20, 1989 inauguration ceremony at the United States Capitol

Bush was inaugurated on January 20, 1989, succeeding Ronald Reagan. He entered office at a period of change in the world; the fall of the Berlin Wall came early in his presidency, and the collapse of the Soviet Union came in 1991.[116] He ordered military operations in Panama and the Persian Gulf, and, at one point, was recorded as having a record-high approval rating of 89%.[117]

In his Inaugural Address, Bush said:

I come before you and assume the Presidency at a moment rich with promise. We live in a peaceful, prosperous time, but we can make it better. For a new breeze is blowing, and a world refreshed by freedom seems reborn; for in man’s heart, if not in fact, the day of the dictator is over. The totalitarian era is passing, its old ideas blown away like leaves from an ancient, lifeless tree. A new breeze is blowing, and a nation refreshed by freedom stands ready to push on. There is new ground to be broken, and new action to be taken.[118]

Domestic policy


The Bush Cabinet






George H. W. Bush



Vice President

Dan Quayle



Secretary of State

James Baker



Lawrence Eagleburger



Secretary of Treasury

Nicholas Brady



Secretary of Defense

Dick Cheney



Attorney General

Dick Thornburgh



William P. Barr



Secretary of the Interior

Manuel Lujan



Secretary of Agriculture

Clayton Yeutter



Edward Madigan



Secretary of Commerce

Robert Mosbacher



Barbara Hackman Franklin



Secretary of Labor

Elizabeth Dole



Lynn Martin



Secretary of Health and
Human Services

Louis Sullivan



Secretary of Education

Lauro Cavazos



Lamar Alexander



Secretary of Housing and
Urban Development

Jack Kemp



Secretary of Transportation

Samuel Skinner



Andrew Card



Secretary of Energy

James Watkins



Secretary of Veterans Affairs

Ed Derwinski



Chief of Staff

John H. Sununu



James Baker



Samuel Skinner



Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency

William Reilly



Director of the Office of
Management and Budget

Richard Darman



Director of the Office of
National Drug Control Policy

William Bennett



Bob Martinez



United States Trade Representative

Carla Anderson Hills


Early in his term, Bush faced the problem of what to do with leftover deficits spawned during the Reagan years. At $220 billion in 1990, the deficit had tripled since 1980. Bush was dedicated to curbing the deficit, believing that America could not continue to be a leader in the world without doing so. He began an effort to persuade the Democratic controlled Congress to act on the budget; with Republicans believing that the best way was to cut government spending, and Democrats convinced that the only way would be to raise taxes, Bush faced problems when it came to consensus building.[26]

In the wake of a struggle with Congress, Bush was forced by the Democratic majority to raise tax revenues; as a result, many Republicans felt betrayed because Bush had promised “no new taxes” in his 1988 campaign. Perceiving a means of revenge, Republican congressmen defeated Bush’s proposal, which would enact spending cuts and tax increases that would reduce the deficit by $500 billion over five years. Scrambling, Bush accepted the Democrats’ demands for higher taxes and more spending, which alienated him from Republicans and gave way to a sharp decrease in popularity. Bush would later say that he wished he had never signed the bill.[26] Near the end of the 101st Congress, the president and congressional members reached a compromise on a budget package that increased the marginal tax rate and phased out exemptions for high-income taxpayers. Although he originally demanded a reduction in the capital gains tax, Bush relented on this issue as well. This agreement with the Democratic leadership in Congress proved to be a turning point in the Bush presidency; his popularity among Republicans never fully recovered.[20]

Coming at around the same time as the budget deal, America entered into a mild recession, lasting for six months. Many government programs, such as welfare, increased.[26] As the unemployment rate edged upward in 1991, Bush signed a bill providing additional benefits for unemployed workers.[20] The year 1991 was marked by many corporate reorganizations, which laid off a substantial number of workers. Many now unemployed were Republicans and independents, who had believed that their jobs were secure.[119]

By his second year in office, Bush was told by his economic advisors to stop dealing with the economy, as they believed that he had done everything necessary to ensure his reelection. By 1992, interest and inflation rates were the lowest in years, but by midyear the unemployment rate reached 7.8%, the highest since 1984. In September 1992, the Census Bureau reported that 14.2% of all Americans lived in poverty.[20] At a press conference in 1990, Bush told reporters that he found foreign policy more enjoyable.[26]


On April 5, 1989, Bush submitted to Congress the Educational Excellence Act of 1989, a seven program education legislative proposal with the intent of achieving “a better-educated America.”[120][121] The proposal was opposed by Republicans seeking to shrink government’s role in education and met with a lack of enthusiasm by Democrats.[122] A week after submitting the proposal, Bush said his administration was seeking to provide waivers on “some regulations for poorer communities” and create “a kind of performance-driven partial deregulation of education” that would grant federal funding when schools showed high levels of accountability coupled with academic performance.[123][124] Later in the year, from September 27–28, Bush held a two-day summit with American governors dedicated solely to education reform at the University of Virginia, the group forming a consensus to overhaul the American education system for the country’s students to be closer in test scores in science, mathematics, and literacy.[125]

In the 1990 State of the Union Address, Bush revealed his interest in his administration spearheading the increase in American high school graduation rates to 90% along with making American students “first in the world” in the subjects of math and science by 2000.[126][127]

In a speech in the White House East Room on April 18, 1991, Bush called for both public and private citizens to become involved with education reform: “To those who want to see real improvement in American education, I say there will be no renaissance without revolution. It’s time we held our schools, and ourselves, accountable for results.”[128] On June 3, Bush advocated for community participation in reforming the national education system and insisting America 2000 would fail “if we try to do it from Washington itself.”[129] On October 4, Bush met with representatives of the New American Schools Development Corp. at Camp David as the organization sought 200 million USD for education reform to aid with the forming of “new learning environments”.[130] In a November 25 appearance in Columbus, Ohio, Bush joined Governor of Ohio
George Voinovich in formally announcing a state version of his education policy, “Ohio 2000”. Bush concurrently declared he would be involved with a reform of troubled schools and charged the Democrat-controlled Congress with “fighting tooth and nail against our most important reforms”.[131]

On July 23, 1992, Bush signed the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, a resuming of “many programs in the Higher Education Act of 1965.”[132]

Major initiatives

See also: Environmental policy of the United States § The George H. W. Bush Administration (1989–1993)

Bush’s approval ratings (red) compared to his disapproval ratings (blue) for his four-year presidency

During a speech to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, Bush announced a vision to complete Space Station Freedom, resume exploration of the Moon and begin exploration of Mars.[133] Although a space station was eventually constructed–work on the International Space Station began in 1998–other work has been confounded by NASA budgetary issues. In 1998, Bush received the Rotary National Award for Space Achievement’s National Space Trophy for his pioneering leadership of the U.S. space program.[134]

During his presidency, Bush signed a number of major bills into law, including the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; this was one of the most pro-civil rights bills in decades. He was also the only president to successfully veto a civil rights act, having vetoed the job-discrimination protection Civil Rights Act of 1990.[135] Bush feared racial quotas would be imposed, but later approved watered-down Civil Rights Act of 1991.[136] He worked to increase federal spending for education, childcare, and advanced technology research. He also signed the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act which provides monetary compensation of people who had contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or their exposure to high levels of radon while doing uranium mining. In dealing with the environment, Bush reauthorized the Clean Air Act, requiring cleaner burning fuels. He quarreled with Congress over an eventually signed bill to aid police in capturing criminals, and signed into law a measure to improve the nation’s highway system.[26] Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990,[137] which led to a 40 percent increase in legal immigration to the United States.[138]

President Bush participates in a full cabinet meeting in the Cabinet Room in July 1992

President Bush presents Senator Strom Thurmond with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in a ceremony in the Oval Office.

Bush became a life member of the National Rifle Association early in 1988 and had campaigned as a “pro-gun” candidate with the NRA’s endorsement.[139] In March 1989, he placed a temporary ban on the import of certain semiautomatic rifles.[140] This action cost him endorsement from the NRA in 1992. Bush publicly resigned his life membership in the organization after receiving a form letter from the NRA depicting agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms as “jack-booted thugs.” He called the NRA letter a “vicious slander on good people.”[141]

Points of Light

Main article: Points of Light

President Bush devoted attention to voluntary service as a means of solving some of America’s most serious social problems. He often used the “thousand points of light” theme to describe the power of citizens to solve community problems. In his 1989 inaugural address, President Bush said, “I have spoken of a thousand points of light, of all the community organizations that are spread like stars throughout the Nation, doing good.”[142]

Four years later, in his report to the nation on The Points of Light Movement, President Bush said, “Points of Light are the soul of America. They are ordinary people who reach beyond themselves to touch the lives of those in need, bringing hope and opportunity, care and friendship. By giving so generously of themselves, these remarkable individuals show us not only what is best in our heritage but what all of us are called to become.”[142]

In 1990, the Points of Light Foundation was created as a nonprofit organization in Washington to promote this spirit of volunteerism.[143] In 2007, the Points of Light Foundation merged with the Hands on Network with the goal of strengthening volunteerism, streamlining costs and services and deepening impact.[144]
Points of Light, the organization created through this merger, has approximately 250 affiliates in 22 countries and partnerships with thousands of nonprofits and companies dedicated to volunteer service around the world. In 2012, Points of Light mobilized 4 million volunteers in 30 million hours of service worth $635 million.[145]

On October 16, 2009, President Barack Obama held a Presidential Forum on Service hosted by former President George H. W. Bush and Points of Light at the George Bush Presidential Library Center on the campus of Texas A&M University. The event celebrated the contributions of more than 4,500 Daily Point of Light award winners and honored President Bush’s legacy of service and civic engagement.[146]

In 2011, Points of Light paid tribute to President George H. W. Bush and volunteer service at Washington, D.C.’s John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. President Bush was joined by Presidents Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush to highlight the role volunteer service plays in people’s lives.[147]

Daily Point of Light Award

President Bush created the Daily Point of Light Award in 1989 to recognize ordinary Americans from all walks of life taking direct and consequential voluntary action in their communities to solve serious social problems. The President focused great attention on these individuals and organizations, both to honor them for their tremendous work and to call the nation to join them and multiply their efforts. By the end of his administration, President Bush had recognized 1,020 Daily Points of Light representing all 50 states and addressing issues ranging from care for infants and teenagers with AIDS to adult illiteracy and from gang violence to job training for the homeless.[142] The Daily Point of Light continues to be awarded by Points of Light and President Bush continues to sign all of the awards.[148]

On July 15, 2013, President Barack Obama welcomed President Bush to the White House to celebrate the 5,000th Daily Point of Light Award.[149] They bestowed the award on Floyd Hammer and Kathy Hamilton of Union, Iowa, for their work founding Outreach, a nonprofit that delivers free meals to hungry children in 15 countries.[150]

Judicial appointments

See also: George H. W. Bush Supreme Court candidates and List of federal judges appointed by George H. W. Bush

Bush made two appointments to the Supreme Court of the United States: David Souter in 1990, and Clarence Thomas in 1991. Additionally, he appointed 42 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals and 148 judges to the United States district courts. Among these was Vaughn R. Walker, a gay man who ruled that California’s Proposition 8 amendment was unconstitutional.[151] Bush also experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies, as 11 nominees for 10 federal appellate judgeships were not processed by the Democratically-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee.[152]

Foreign policy

Main article: Foreign policy of the George H. W. Bush administration


Main article: United States invasion of Panama

Bush speaks on the telephone regarding Operation Just Cause as General Brent Scowcroft and Chief of Staff John H. Sununu look on, 1989

In the 1980s, Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega, a once U.S.-supportive leader who was later accused of spying for Fidel Castro and using Panama to traffic drugs into the United States, was one of the most recognizable names in America and was constantly in the press. The struggle to remove him from power began in the Reagan administration, when economic sanctions were imposed on the country; this included prohibiting American companies and government from making payments to Panama and freezing $56 million in Panamanian funds in American banks. Reagan sent more than 2,000 American troops to Panama as well.[153] Unlike Reagan, Bush was able to remove Noriega from power, but his administration’s unsuccessful post-invasion planning hindered the needs of Panama during the establishment of the young democratic government.[154]

In May 1989, Panama held democratic elections, in which Guillermo Endara was elected president; the results were then annulled by Noriega’s government. In response, Bush sent 2,000 more troops to the country, where they began conducting regular military exercises in Panamanian territory (in violation of prior treaties). Bush then removed an embassy and ambassador from the country, and dispatched additional troops to Panama to prepare the way for an upcoming invasion.[153] Noriega suppressed an October military coup attempt and massive protests in Panama against him, but after a U.S. serviceman was shot by Panamanian forces in December 1989, Bush ordered 24,000 troops into the country with an objective of removing Noriega from power;[155] “Operation Just Cause” was a large-scale American military operation, and the first in more than 40 years that was not related to the Cold War.[154]

The mission was controversial, but American forces achieved control of the country and Endara assumed the presidency.[156] Noriega surrendered to the United States and was convicted and imprisoned on racketeering and drug trafficking charges in April 1992.[157] President Bush and First Lady Barbara Bush visited Panama in June 1992, to give support to the first post-invasion Panamanian government. The visit was marred by protests that broke into gunfire and tear gas, forcing Bush to leave a rally.[158]

Soviet Union

See also: Dissolution of the Soviet Union, New world order (politics), A World Transformed, and History of the United States (1980-91) § The end of the Cold War

Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev in Helsinki summit in 1990

In 1989, just after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Bush met with Soviet General Secretary
Mikhail Gorbachev in a conference on the Mediterranean island of Malta. The administration had been under intense pressure to meet with the Soviets, but not all initially found the Malta Summit to be a step in the right direction; General Brent Scowcroft, among others, was apprehensive about the meeting, saying that it might be “premature” due to concerns where, according to Condoleezza Rice, “expectations [would be] set that something was going to happen, where the Soviets might grandstand and force [the U.S.] into agreements that would ultimately not be good for the United States.” But European leaders, including François Mitterrand and Margaret Thatcher, encouraged Bush to meet with Gorbachev,[159] something that he did on December 2 and 3, 1989. Although no agreements were signed, the meeting was viewed largely as being an important one; when asked about nuclear war, Gorbachev responded, “I assured the President of the United States that the Soviet Union would never start a hot war against the United States of America. And we would like our relations to develop in such a way that they would open greater possibilities for cooperation… This is just the beginning. We are just at the very beginning of our road, long road to a long-lasting, peaceful period.”[160] The meeting was received as a very important step to the end of the Cold War.[161]

George and Barbara Bush with President Boris Yeltsin, Russia’s first post-Soviet freely elected leader, at The White House, Washington D.C., 1992

Another summit was held in July 1991, where the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) was signed by Bush and Gorbachev in Moscow. The treaty took nine years in the making and was the first major arms agreement since the signing of the Intermediate Ranged Nuclear Forces Treaty by Reagan and Gorbachev in 1987. The contentions in START would reduce the strategic nuclear weapons of the United States and the USSR by about 35% over seven years, and the Soviet Union’s land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles would be cut by 50%. Bush described START as “a significant step forward in dispelling half a century of mistrust”.[162] After the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, President Bush and Russian president Boris Yeltsin declared a U.S.–Russian strategic partnership, marking the end of the Cold War.[163]

Gulf War

Main article: Gulf War

President Bush visits American troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990

On August 2, 1990, Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded its oil-rich neighbor to the south, Kuwait; Bush condemned the invasion[164] and began rallying opposition to Iraq in the US and among European, Asian, and Middle Eastern allies.[26]
Secretary of Defense
Dick Cheney traveled to Saudi Arabia to meet with King Fahd; Fahd requested US military aid in the matter, fearing a possible invasion of his country as well.[164] The request was met initially with Air Force fighter jets. Iraq made attempts to negotiate a deal that would allow the country to take control of half of Kuwait. Bush rejected this proposal and insisted on a complete withdrawal of Iraqi forces.[26] The planning of a ground operation by U.S.-led coalition forces began forming in September 1990, headed by General Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr..[164] Bush spoke before a joint session of the United States Congress regarding the authorization of air and land attacks, laying out four immediate objectives: “Iraq must withdraw from Kuwait completely, immediately, and without condition. Kuwait’s legitimate government must be restored. The security and stability of the Persian Gulf must be assured. And American citizens abroad must be protected.” He then outlined a fifth, long-term objective: “Out of these troubled times, our fifth objective — a new world order — can emerge: a new era — freer from the threat of terror, stronger in the pursuit of justice, and more secure in the quest for peace. An era in which the nations of the world, East and West, North and South, can prosper and live in harmony … A world where the rule of law supplants the rule of the jungle. A world in which nations recognize the shared responsibility for freedom and justice. A world where the strong respect the rights of the weak.”[165] With the United Nations Security Council opposed to Iraq’s violence, Congress authorized the use of military force[164] with a set goal of returning control of Kuwait to the Kuwaiti government, and protecting America’s interests abroad.[26]

Bush meets with Robert Gates, General Colin Powell, Secretary Dick Cheney and others about the situation in the Persian Gulf and Operation Desert Shield, January 15, 1991

Early on the morning of January 17, 1991, allied forces launched the first attack, which included more than 4,000 bombing runs by coalition aircraft.[166] This pace would continue for the next four weeks, until a ground invasion was launched on February 24, 1991. Allied forces penetrated Iraqi lines and pushed toward Kuwait City while on the west side of the country, forces were intercepting the retreating Iraqi army. Bush made the decision to stop the offensive after a mere 100 hours.[167][168] Critics labeled this decision premature, as hundreds of Iraqi forces were able to escape; Bush responded by saying that he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties. Opponents further charged that Bush should have continued the attack, pushing Hussein’s army back to Baghdad, then removing him from power.[26] Bush explained that he did not give the order to overthrow the Iraqi government because it would have “incurred incalculable human and political costs… We would have been forced to occupy Baghdad and, in effect, rule Iraq.”[169]

Bush’s approval ratings skyrocketed after the successful offensive.[26] Additionally, President Bush and Secretary of State Baker felt the coalition victory had increased U.S. prestige abroad and believed there was a window of opportunity to use the political capital generated by the coalition victory to revitalize the Arab-Israeli peace process. The administration immediately returned to Arab-Israeli peacemaking following the end of the Gulf War; this resulted in the Madrid Conference, later in 1991.[170]

Somali Civil War

Main article: Somali Civil War

Faced with a humanitarian disaster in Somalia that was exacerbated by a complete breakdown in civil order, the United Nations had created the UNOSOM I mission in April 1992 to aid the situation through humanitarian efforts, though the mission failed.[171] The Bush administration proposed American aid to the region by assisting in creating a secure environment for humanitarian efforts and UN Resolution 794 was unanimously adopted by the Security Council on December 3, 1992.[172] A lame duck president, Bush launched Operation Restore Hope the following day under which the United States would assume command in accordance with Resolution 794.[173] Fighting would escalate and continue into the Clinton administration.[174]


During an April 28, 1989 appearance in the press room of the White House, Bush announced that the U.S. would continue a deal with Japan to produce the FSX advanced fighter jet. He said that promises had been made that American jobs and technology would be safe and the proposal would bolster security for both the U.S. and Japan.[175]

On November 21, 1989, Bush signed a measure that guaranteed reparations to Japanese-Americans who were relocated into internment camps during World War II. Congress authorized US$20,000 (equivalent to $39,485 in 2017) for each survivor.[176]

On March 12, 1990, Bush met for an hour with former Prime Minister of Japan
Noboru Takeshita to discuss shared economic issues and “the fact that their solution will require extraordinary efforts on both sides of the Pacific.”[177]

On December 6, 1991, Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa apologized to the United States for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The following day—which was the fiftieth anniversary of the attack—Bush accepted Japan’s apology for the attack that drew the United States into World War II. Bush urged that progress be made in improving relations between the U.S. and Japan.[178]


On June 18, 1990, White House Press Secretary
Marlin Fitzwater confirmed President Bush had sent Prime Minister of Israel
Yitzhak Shamir a letter in which he congratulated the latter on his election and urged him to support the proposed “Shamir initiative for peace”, which would involve the participation of Palestinian Arabians in local elections.[179] On June 20, Bush suspended American dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization for the latter’s refusal to condemn the Palestinian guerrilla raid of an Israeli beach the previous month.[180]

On August 11, 1992, following a meeting between President Bush and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Bush announced he would seek the approval of Congress to bestow Israel up to $10 billion in loan guarantees to assist the country with its absorbing of Soviet Union immigrants.[181][182]


Main article: North American Free Trade Agreement

Standing: President Carlos Salinas, President Bush, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney; Seated: Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills, and Michael Wilson at the NAFTA Initialing Ceremony, October 1992

The Bush administration and the Progressive Conservative
Canadian Prime Minister
Brian Mulroney spearheaded the negotiations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The agreement would eliminate the majority of tariffs on products that were traded among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. This would encourage trade among the countries. The treaty also restricted patents, copyrights, and trademarks, and outlined the removal of investment restrictions among the three countries.[183] President Bush announced the completion of NAFTA during a Rose Garden appearance on August 12, 1992, calling it the “beginning of a new era”.[184]

The agreement came under heavy scrutiny amongst mainly Democrats, who charged that NAFTA resulted in a loss of American jobs.[26] NAFTA also contained no provisions for labor rights; according to the Bush administration, the trade agreement would generate economic resources necessary to enable Mexico’s government to overcome problems of funding and enforcement of its labor laws. Bush needed a renewal of negotiating authority to move forward with the NAFTA trade talks. Such authority would enable the president to negotiate a trade accord that would be submitted to Congress for a vote, thereby avoiding a situation in which the president would be required to renegotiate with trading partners those parts of an agreement that Congress wished to change.[185] While initial signing was possible during his term, negotiations made slow, but steady, progress. President Clinton would go on to make the passage of NAFTA a priority for his administration, despite its conservative and Republican roots—with the addition of two side agreements—to achieve its passage in 1993.[186]

The treaty has since been defended as well as criticized further. The American economy has grown 54% since the adoption of NAFTA in 1993, with 25 million new jobs created; this was seen by some as evidence of NAFTA being beneficial to the United States.[187] With talk in early 2008 regarding a possible American withdrawal from the treaty, Carlos M. Gutierrez, current United States Secretary of Commerce, writes, “Quitting NAFTA would send economic shock waves throughout the world, and the damage would start here at home.”[187] But John J. Sweeney, President of the AFL-CIO, wrote in The Boston Globe that “the U.S. trade deficit with Canada and Mexico ballooned to 12 times its pre-NAFTA size, reaching $111 billion in 2004.”[188]


Main article: List of people pardoned by George H. W. Bush

In keeping with tradition, Bush issued a series of pardons during his last days in office. On December 24, 1992, he granted executive clemency to six former government employees implicated in the Iran-Contra scandal of the late 1980s, most prominently former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger.[189] Bush described Weinberger, who was scheduled to stand trial on January 5, 1993, for criminal charges related to Iran-Contra, as a “true American patriot”.[189]

In addition to Weinberger, Bush pardoned Duane R. Clarridge, Clair E. George, Robert C. McFarlane, Elliott Abrams, and Alan G. Fiers Jr., all of whom had been indicted and/or convicted of criminal charges by an Independent Counsel headed by Lawrence Walsh.[190]

Honorary degrees

George H. W. Bush received honorary degrees from several American and International Universities, including:


School and location



Howard University, Washington, D.C.

Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[191][192]


Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Connecticut

Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[193][194]


Miami University, Oxford, Ohio

Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[195]


Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

Doctor of Humane Letters (L.H.D.)[196]


Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas



Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma

Doctor of Economics[198]


Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia

Doctor of Humanities (HH.D.)[199]


Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[200]


College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia

Doctor of Laws (LL.D)


Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, Connecticut

Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[201]


Washington College, Chestertown, Maryland

Doctor of Public Service (D.P.S.)[202]


University of Macau, Macau, China

Doctor of Social Sciences[203]


Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire

Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[204]


Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Doctor of Laws (LL.D)[205][206]


National Intelligence University, Bethesda, Maryland

Doctor of Strategic Intelligence[207]

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Awards and honors

In 1990, Time magazine named him the Man of the Year.[208] In 1991, the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation awarded Bush its Lone Sailor award for his naval service and his subsequent government service.[209] In 1993, he was made an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath by Queen Elizabeth II.[210] In 2009, he received the PGA Tour Lifetime Achievement Award and was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame two years later.[211]

1992 presidential campaign

Main article: United States presidential election, 1992

In early 1992, Bush announced that he would seek a second term. A coalition victory in the Persian Gulf War and high approval ratings made re-election seem likely. As a result, many leading Democrats declined to seek their party’s presidential nomination.[212] On the negative side, Bush’s popularity was reduced by an economic recession and doubts of whether he properly ended the Gulf War.[213][214]

Conservative political columnist Pat Buchanan challenged Bush for the Republican nomination. He shocked political pundits by finishing second, with 37% of the vote in the New Hampshire primary. Bush responded by adopting more conservative positions on issues, in an attempt to undermine Buchanan’s base.[26] Once he had secured the nomination, Bush faced his Democratic challenger, Arkansas Governor
Bill Clinton. Clinton attacked Bush as a politician who was not doing enough to assist the working middle-class and being “out of touch” with the common man, a notion reinforced by reporter Andrew Rosenthal‘s false report that Bush was “astonished” to see a demonstration of a supermarket scanner.[215][216][217]

The 1992 presidential electoral votes by state

In early 1992, the race took an unexpected twist when Texas billionaire H. Ross Perot launched a third party bid, claiming that neither Republicans nor Democrats could eliminate the deficit and make government more efficient. His message appealed to voters across the political spectrum disappointed with both parties’ perceived fiscal irresponsibility.[218] Perot later bowed out of the race for a short time, then reentered.[219]

Clinton had originally been in the lead, until Perot reentered, tightening the race significantly.[220] As Election Day neared, the polls suggested that the race was a dead-heat,[20] but Clinton pulled out on top, with 370 electoral votes to Bush’s 168 votes. Perot won 19% of the popular vote, one of the highest totals for a third party candidate in U.S. history, drawing equally from both major candidates, according to exit polls.[26][221][222]

Several key factors led to Bush’s defeat. The ailing economy that arose from recession may have been the main factor in Bush’s loss. On Election Day, 7 in 10 voters said that the economy was either “not so good” or “poor”.[223][224] On the eve of the 1992 election, after unemployment reports of 7.8% appeared (the highest since 1984),[225] Economic recession had contributed to a sharp decline in his approval rating – to just 37%.[226]

Conservative Republicans pointed out that Bush’s 1990 agreement to raise taxes contradicted his famous “Read my lips: no new taxes” pledge. In doing so, Bush alienated many members of his conservative base, losing their support for his re-election. According to one survey, of the voters who cited Bush’s broken “No New Taxes” pledge as “very important”, two thirds voted for Bill Clinton.[227] Bush had raised taxes in an attempt to address an increasing budget deficit, which has largely been attributed to the Reagan tax cuts and military spending of the 1980s. The tax revenue increase had not hurt his approval rating to the extent that it prevented it from reaching its highest level, 89%, by February 1991, during the Gulf War, and four months after the tax vote.[228][229]

Public image

Bush visits NAS JRB, New Orleans personnel before he receives briefs on the status of Joint Task Force Katrina relief efforts, October 2005

George Bush was widely seen as a “pragmatic caretaker” president who lacked a unified and compelling long-term theme in his efforts.[230][231][232] Indeed, Bush’s sound bite where he refers to the issue of overarching purpose as “the vision thing” has become a metonym applied to other political figures accused of similar difficulties.[233][234][235][236][237][238] “He does not say why he wants to be there”, wrote columnist George Will, “so the public does not know why it should care if he gets his way”.[40]

His Ivy League and prep school education led to warnings by advisors that his image was too “preppy” in 1980, which resulted in deliberate efforts in his 1988 campaign to shed the image, including meeting voters at factories and shopping malls, abandoning set speeches.[40]

His ability to gain broad international support for the Gulf War and the war’s result were seen as both a diplomatic and military triumph,[116] rousing bipartisan approval,[239] though his decision to withdraw without removing Saddam Hussein left mixed feelings, and attention returned to the domestic front and a souring economy.[240] A New York Times article mistakenly depicted Bush as being surprised to see a supermarket barcode reader;[215][217] the report of his reaction exacerbated the notion that he was “out of touch”.[215] Amid the early 1990s recession, his image shifted from “conquering hero” to “politician befuddled by economic matters”.[216]

Although Bush became the first elected Republican president since Hoover in 1932 to lose a reelection bid (facing a 34% approval rating leading up to the 1992 election), the mood did not last. Despite his defeat, Bush climbed back from election day approval levels to leave office in 1993 with a 56% job approval rating.[241] By December 2008, 60% of Americans gave Bush’s presidency a positive rating.[242]

Post-presidency (1993–2018)

Clinton presidency

Upon leaving office, Bush retired with his wife, Barbara, and temporarily moved into a friend’s house near the Tanglewood community of Houston as they prepared to build a permanent retirement house nearby.[243] Ultimately they built their retirement house in the community of West Oaks, near Tanglewood.[33] They had a presidential office within the Park Laureate Building on Memorial Drive.[244] Mimi Swartz of National Geographic wrote that “The Bushes are too studiously sedate to live in River Oaks“.[245] They spent their summers at Walker’s Point in Kennebunkport, Maine.[246]

President Bill Clinton meeting with former Presidents George H.W. Bush and Jimmy Carter at the White House in September 1993

In 1993, Bush was awarded an honorary knighthood (GCB) by Queen Elizabeth II. He was the third American president to receive the honor, the others being Dwight D. Eisenhower and Ronald Reagan.[210]

In 1993, Bush was targeted in an assassination plot when he visited Kuwait to commemorate the coalition’s victory over Iraq in the Gulf War. Kuwaiti authorities arrested 17 people who were allegedly involved in using a car bomb to kill Bush. Through interviews with the suspects and examinations of the bomb’s circuitry and wiring, the FBI established that the plot had been directed by the Iraqi Intelligence Service. A Kuwaiti court later convicted all but one of the defendants. Two months later, Clinton retaliated when he ordered the firing of 23 cruise missiles at Iraqi Intelligence Service headquarters in Baghdad. The day before the strike, U.S. Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright went before the Security Council to present evidence of the Iraqi plot. After the missiles were fired, Vice President Al Gore said the attack “was intended to be a proportionate response at the place where this plot” to assassinate Bush “was hatched and implemented”.[247]

In September 1993, Bush and other living former presidents were invited back to the White House for an Arab-Israeli peace accord. They also made the case to Clinton for a repeal of NAFTA.[248]

In April 1994, Bush attended the funeral of Richard Nixon.[249]

In the 1994 gubernatorial elections, his sons George W. and Jeb concurrently ran for Governor of Texas and Governor of Florida. The elder Bush frequently telephoned campaign headquarters for updates on the race.[250] George W. won his race against Ann Richards while Jeb lost to Lawton Chiles. After the results came in, the elder Bush told ABC, “I have very mixed emotions. Proud father, is the way I would sum it all up.”[251] Jeb would again run for governor of Florida in 1998 and win at the same time that his brother George W. won re-election in Texas. It marked the second time in U.S. history that a pair of brothers served simultaneously as governors.[252]

From 1993 to 1999, he served as the chairman of the board of trustees for Eisenhower Fellowships,[253] and from 2007 to 2009 was chairman of the National Constitution Center.[254]

On September 28, 1994, Bush said he was opposed to sending American troops to Haiti, citing his loss of confidence in President of Haiti
Jean-Bertrand Aristide while speaking to business and civic leaders in Houston.[255]

In an October 22, 1994 speech in Cancún, Mexico, Bush said history would vindicate him for not attempting to force Saddam Hussein out of power while in office: “The Mideast peace talks that offer hope to the world would never have started if we had done that. The Arabs would never have talked to us.”[256]

The unveiling of an official portrait of George H. W. Bush at the East Room of the White House, 1995

On July 17, 1995, Bush returned to the White House for the unveiling of his official portrait in an East Room ceremony attended by former members of his administration.[257]

In September 1995, Bush met with President of Vietnam
Lê Đức Anh and party secretary Đỗ Mười in Vietnam.[258] On September 2, Bush and his son George W. participated in a parade commemorating World War II in Fredericksburg, Texas, where the elder Bush reasoned the US had become united in the aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attack and stressed America would have to stay involved in world affairs to continue its unity.[259]

On July 26, 1996, Bush met with Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole and pledged he would do everything in his power to aid in securing a victory for Dole in the upcoming presidential election.[260] The two met again in October while Dole was preparing for upcoming debates with President Clinton. Bush’s experience with debating Clinton prompting Dole to seek out his advice.[261]

In February 1997, Bush endorsed the chemical weapon banning treaty supported by United States Secretary of State
Madeleine Albright, saying the US would need to approve the treaty ahead of the April deadline.[262]

In April 1997, Bush gave a speech at a convocation of a weekend conference analyzing his presidency[263] and joined President Bill Clinton, former President Ford, and Nancy Reagan in signing the “Summit Declaration of Commitment” in advocating for participation by private citizens in solving domestic issues within the United States.[264] Also in April 1997, the Houston Intercontinental Airport was renamed George Bush Intercontinental Airport after a proposal received the unanimous approval of the Houston City Council.[265] The renaming took effect on May 2, with Bush presiding over the ceremonies as he took a 50-minute flight during the official changeover.[266]

Inauguration ceremony of Jeb Bush in January 1999

In August 1997, Bush agreed to be interviewed by The New York Times, as long as he would not be portrayed as giving credit to himself over the balanced budget deal that was composed by President Clinton and House Speaker Newt Gingrich. During a telephone interview, he stated his belief that history would show that his administration laid the groundwork for the agreement.[267]

President Bush was Honorary Chairman of Points of Light, an international nonprofit dedicated to engaging more people and resources in solving serious social problems through voluntary service.[268]

In January 1999, Bush spoke in the Old Senate chamber as part of a lecture series for Senators in an address warning against the collapse of political decorum and invasions into the privacy of individuals.[269]

In February 1999, Bush was part of the American delegation to the funeral of Hussein of Jordan in Amman.[270]

In April 1999, Bush called for the release of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet when Spain had him arrested and sought to try him for human rights violations.[271]

In May 1999, Bush and his wife Barbara honored six senior citizens during the annual Ageless Heroes honors in Chicago, Illinois.[272]

George W. Bush presidency

George and Barbara Bush, 2001

His eldest son, George W. Bush, was inaugurated as the 43rd president of the United States on January 20, 2001, and re-elected in 2004. Through previous administrations, the elder Bush had ubiquitously been known as “George Bush” or “President Bush”, but following his son’s election the need to distinguish between them has made retronymic forms such as “George H. W. Bush” and “George Bush senior” and colloquialisms such as “Bush 41” and “Bush the Elder” much more common. H.W. Bush was traveling to Minnesota for a speaking engagement on the day of the September 11 attacks. George W. made multiple calls to get in contact with his father before the two men reconnected after the elder Bush had gone to a Brookfield, Wisconsin motel.[273] Bush told biographer Jon Meacham that his son’s vice president, Dick Cheney, underwent a change following the September 11 attacks: “His seeming knuckling under to the real hard-charging guys who want to fight about everything, use force to get our way in the Middle East.”[274]

In December 2002, George W. sought counsel from the elder Bush regarding Iraq and informed him of “my efforts to rally the Saudis, Jordanians, Turks, and others in the Middle East”.[275]

Following the fall of Baghdad, Bush praised George W. in an April 2003 email to the incumbent president.[276] In a September 14, 2003 interview with BBC, Bush stated his support for a continuation of his son’s war against terrorism and the US was in a better state in terms of protecting itself from terrorism than two years prior.[277] While visiting Houston VA Medical Center on December 17, Bush told reporters of his satisfaction with the capture of Saddam Hussein.[278]

President and Mrs. Bush attended the state funeral of Ronald Reagan in June 2004,[279] and of Gerald Ford in January 2007.[280] One month later, he was awarded the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award in Beverly Hills, California, by former First Lady Nancy Reagan. Despite Bush’s political differences with Bill Clinton, reports acknowledged that the two former presidents had become friends.[281] He and Clinton appeared together in television ads in 2005, encouraging aid for victims of Hurricane Katrina and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.[282]

Bush (right) with Russian President Vladimir Putin as he receives the Jubilee Medal “60 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945” from Putin in 2005.

In October 2004, Bush endorsed Pete Sessions and Ted Poe in Texas congressional races.[283]

In February 2006, Bush delivered a eulogy at the funeral of Coretta Scott King.[284]

On March 2, 2006, President Bush announced that his father would lead the American delegation to the inauguration of President-elect of the Republic of Portugal Anibal Cavaco Silva.[285]

In September 2006, Bush campaigned for New Jersey Senate candidate Thomas Kean Jr., praising him as well as stating his respect for Kean calling on the resignation of US Defense Secretary Rumsfeld.[286] Kean went on to lose the election. The following month, he was honored by the National Italian American Foundation (NIAF) with the NIAF One America Award for fundraising, with Bill Clinton, for the victims of the 2004 tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.[287]

On February 18, 2008, Bush formally endorsed Senator John McCain for President of the United States.[288] The endorsement offered a boost to McCain’s campaign, because the Arizona Senator had been facing criticism among many conservatives.[289] During a trip to Tokyo, Japan, Bush said that he would campaign vigorously against Senator Hillary Clinton if she were to initiate a presidential bid.[290]

In March 2008, Bush met with President of the People’s Republic of China
Hu Jintao, who praised Bush for his attempts at harmonizing relations between the US and China.[291]

George H. W. Bush with son George W. Bush and China’s President Hu Jintao in Beijing, People’s Republic of China, August 10, 2008

During an address at the University of Kansas on November 16, 2008, Bush said that President-elect Obama would encounter diverse issues upon taking office and experience a wave of enthusiasm.[292]

On January 10, 2009, George H. W. and George W. Bush were both present at the commissioning of USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77), the tenth and last Nimitz-class
supercarrier of the United States Navy.[293][294] Bush paid a visit to the carrier again on May 26, 2009.[295]

Obama presidency

In June 2009, Bush came out in support for Sonia Sotomayor to receive fair hearings in her nomination for Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. “She was called by somebody a racist once. That’s not right. I mean, that’s not fair. It doesn’t help the process. You’re out there name-calling. So let them decide who they want to vote for and get on with it.”[296]

Capt. Kevin E. O’Flaherty, commanding officer of the aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush, escorts former President George H. W. Bush, 2009

In October 2009, Bush criticized the rampant criticism of the current times, reflecting that he did not receive such “day in and day out” during his presidency and named Keith Olbermann and Rachel Maddow of MSNBC as examples; he called the two “sick puppies.”[297] Also during that month, on October 16, Bush joined President Barack Obama onstage at Texas A&M University for a promotion of volunteering.[298]

Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, Bush was an avid golfer. In 2011, he was inducted in the World Golf Hall of Fame.[299]

On February 15, 2011, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom—the highest civilian honor in the United States—by President Barack Obama.[300]

On March 29, 2012, Bush endorsed Mitt Romney for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2012 Presidential election. NBC News reported that Bush had chosen to support Romney three months prior.[301]

In July 2013, Bush had his head shaved in a show of support for the two-year-old son of a member of his security detail, who had leukemia.[302] On July 7, Bush met with Gabrielle Giffords for part of her week-long Rights and Responsibilities Tour advocating expanded background checks in relation to firearm purchases.[303]

Bush meets President Barack Obama in the Oval Office, January 30, 2010

In April 2014, Frederick D. McClure, chief executive of the Bush library foundation, organized a three-day gathering in College Park, Texas, to mark the 25th anniversary of the Bush administration. Also in early 2014, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation presented the Profile in Courage Award to Bush and Mount Vernon awarded him its first Cyrus A. Ansary Prize.[304] The Kennedy foundation award was presented by Jack Schlossberg, the late president’s grandson, to Lauren Bush Lauren, who accepted on her grandfather’s behalf.[305] The Ansary prize was presented in Houston with Ansary, Barbara Lucas, Ryan C. Crocker, dean of the Bush school since January 2010, Barbara Bush, and Curt Viebranz in attendance with the former president. Bush directed $50,000 of the prize to the Bush school at Texas A&M, and $25,000 will fund an animation about the Siege of Yorktown for Mt. Vernon.[306] Viebranz and Lucas represented Mount Vernon at the presentation.[307][308]

On June 12, 2014, Bush fulfilled a long-standing promise by skydiving on his 90th birthday. He made the parachute jump from a helicopter near his home at 11:15 a.m. in Kennebunkport, Maine. The jump marked the eighth time the former president had skydived, including jumps on his 80th and 85th birthday as well.[309] He had tweeted about the incident prior to the jump, saying “It’s a wonderful day in Maine — in fact, nice enough for a parachute jump.”[310][311]

The Bushes with Vice President Mike Pence and family, wife Karen and daughter Charlotte, 2017.

On December 7, 2016, Bush and former Senator Bob Dole commemorated the 75th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor by appearing at the Bush Center of Texas A&M University.[312]

2016 election

In November 2014, George W. confirmed that his father wanted Jeb to launch a presidential bid in 2016.[313] Jeb decided to run for president, but struggled and withdrew from the Republican primary in the wave of anti-establishment sentiment led by Donald Trump.[314] All three Bushes emerged as frequent critics of Trump’s policies and speaking style, while Trump frequently criticized George W. Bush’s presidency. George H.W. Bush later said that he voted for the Democratic nominee, Hillary Clinton, in the general election instead of Trump.[315] After Trump won the election, Bush sent him a congratulatory message.[316]

Trump presidency

On February 5, 2017, George and Barbara Bush participated in the coin toss for Super Bowl LI.[317]

On August 16, 2017, Bush and his son George W. released a joint statement in which they condemned the violence at the Unite the Right rally.[318]

On September 7, 2017, Bush partnered with former presidents Carter, Clinton, George W. Bush, and Obama to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities.[319]

Personal life


Bush was raised in the Episcopal Church, though by the end of his life his apparent religious beliefs have been considered more in line with Evangelical Christian doctrine and practices.[citation needed] He cited various moments in his life deepening of his faith, including his escape from Japanese forces in 1944, and the death of his three-year-old daughter Robin in 1953.[320] His faith was reflected in his Thousand Points of Light speech, his support for prayer in schools, and his support following his election as vice president of the pro-life movement.[320]

After his wife’s death in April 2018, Bush released a statement through his spokesman, saying in part, “We have faith she is in heaven, and we know life will go on – as she would have it. So cross the Bushes off your worry list.”[321]

Health and longevity

In 1991, The New York Times revealed that Bush was suffering from Graves’ disease, a non-contagious thyroid condition that his wife Barbara also had.[322]

On February 24, 2000, Bush was standing at a reception for 90 minutes when he felt lightheaded. He was admitted to a hospital with an irregular heartbeat.[323] When Bush was released three days later, his doctors said that he had retained the irregularity in his heartbeat.[324] On March 11, 2007, Bush fainted on a golf course and was admitted to the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, but was released the following morning.[325]

In July 2015, Bush suffered a severe neck injury. At age 91 in October that year, he was wearing a neck brace in his first public engagement since the accident when he threw the ceremonial first pitch for the Houston Astros at Minute Maid Park.[326] Bush wrote a letter to president-elect Donald Trump in January 2017 to inform him that because of his poor health, he would not be able to attend Trump’s inauguration on January 20; he gave him his best wishes. On January 18, he was admitted to the intensive care unit at Houston Methodist Hospital, where he was sedated for a procedure to treat an acute respiratory problem that was stemming from pneumonia.[327] Three months later, he experienced a recurrence of pneumonia and was hospitalized.[328]

On November 25, 2017, Bush became the longest-lived U.S. president when he surpassed the 93 years and 165 days lifespan of Gerald Ford, who died in 2006.[329] Bush became the nation’s oldest living president as well as the oldest living vice president. He was also the first president to reach the age of 94, reaching that milestone on June 12, 2018.[330] The longest-lived U.S. vice president is John Nance Garner, who died on November 7, 1967, 15 days short of his 99th birthday.[331]

On April 22, 2018—the day after his wife’s funeral—the former president was hospitalized with a blood infection.[332][333] The infection led to sepsis.[334] One month later, he was briefly hospitalized again, after experiencing fatigue and low blood pressure.[335][336]

Sexual misconduct allegations

In October 2017, during the #MeToo movement, actress Heather Lind accused Bush of groping her and telling an inappropriate joke. Several other women subsequently made similar allegations, including Christina Baker Kline and Roslyn Corrigan (who was 16 years old at the time of the alleged incident in 2003).[337] Bush apologized for these incidents through his spokesman, Jim McGrath.[338][339][340] Symptoms for vascular parkinsonism may include a lack of impulse control and cognitive impairment.[341] When medication is used, it is also associated with a lack of impulse control, although it is unknown if he was receiving it.[342]


Main article: Death and state funeral of George H. W. Bush

Bush suffered from vascular parkinsonism, a form of Parkinson’s disease that had forced him to use a motorized scooter or wheelchair since at least 2012.[343][344] He died on November 30, 2018, aged 94,[345] at his home in Houston.[346] Tributes and condolences were offered by former Presidents Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama, and sitting President Donald Trump.


According to USA Today, the legacy of Bush’s Presidency was defined by his victory over Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait, and for his presiding over the collapse of the USSR and unification of Germany. The paper said his political legacy would “continue years later through his son, George W. Bush, who became the 43rd president of the United States.”[347] Matt Picht from Newsy said that in Bush’s legacy, he is remembered as a Foreign Policy President, for presiding over the collapse of the USSR, post Cold War relations with Russia, and for signing the START 1 treaty on nuclear weaponry. Picht wrote that his decision to arrest and depose Panama Dictator Manuel Noriega was popular at the time, but will be less fondly remembered.[348]

Presidential library

The George Bush Presidential Library on the west campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas

Main article: George Bush Presidential Library

The George Bush Presidential Library is the nation’s tenth presidential library and was built between 1995 and 1997.[349] It contains the presidential and vice presidential papers of Bush and the vice presidential papers of Dan Quayle.[350] It was dedicated on November 6, 1997, and opened to the public shortly thereafter; the architectural firm of Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum designed the complex.[351][352]

The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum is located on a 90-acre (36 ha) site on the west campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, on a plaza adjoining the Presidential Conference Center and the Texas A&M Academic Center.[353] The Library operates under NARA‘s administration and the provisions of the Presidential Libraries Act of 1955.[354]

The v is a graduate public policy school at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, that was established in 1995.[353] The graduate school is part of the presidential library complex, and offers four programs — two master’s degree programs (Public Service and Administration, and International Affairs) and three certificate programs (Advanced International Affairs, Nonprofit Management, and Homeland Security).[355]

See also

Electoral history of George H. W. Bush

List of Presidents of the United States by previous experience

List of Presidents of the United States

List of Directors of the Central Intelligence Agency


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b Franklin, Jane (2001). “Panama: Background and Buildup to Invasion of 1989”. Rutgers University. Retrieved April 11, 2008.

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“The President’s News Conference With Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin of Israel in Kennebunkport”. August 11, 1992. Literally hundreds of thousands of Jews from Ethiopia and from the former Soviet Union now make their homes in Israel; and this, more than anything else, is what the Jewish state is all about. In this regard, I am extremely pleased to announce that we were able to reach agreement on the basic principles to govern the granting of up to billion in loan guarantees. I’ve long been committed to supporting Israel in the historic task of absorbing immigrants, and I’m delighted that the Prime Minister and I have agreed to an approach which will assist these new Israelis without frustrating the search for peace. We can thus pursue these two humanitarian goals at one and the same time.

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b Gutierrez, Carlos M (March 1, 2008). “Stop Hating on NAFTA”. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2008.

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^ Jump up to: a
“Honours: Order of the Bath”. The British Monarchy Today. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008.

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^ Jump up to: a
c Goldberg, Jonah (August 22, 2008). “The Corner: The Supermarket Scanner Story Cont’d”. National Review. Retrieved June 26, 2017.

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“Maybe I’m Amazed”. April 1, 2001. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2008.

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b Rosenthal, Andrew (February 5, 1992). “Bush Encounters the Supermarket, Amazed”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2015.

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^ Meacham, Jon (2015). Destiny and Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush. Random House. p. 543. ISBN 978-1400067657.

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“Points of Light: Our Leadership”. Points of Light. Retrieved May 23, 2013.

^ Bruni, Frank (January 21, 1999). “STATE OF THE UNION: THE EX-PRESIDENT; In Speech to Senators, Bush Laments Decline of Civility and Privacy”. The New York Times.

^ Broder, John (February 9, 1999). “DEATH OF A KING: THE AMERICANS; Clinton Lauds King Hussein As Man of Vision and Spirit”. The New York Times.

“Former U.S. President Bush urges Pinochet release”. CNN. April 12, 1999. Retrieved December 11, 2017 – via Reuters.

“Bush honors senior ‘ageless heroes'”. UPI. May 18, 1999.

Bush, George W. (2014). 41: A Portrait of My Father. Crown Publishers. p. 265. ISBN 978-0553447781.

^ Baker, Peter (November 4, 2015). “Elder Bush Says His Son Was Served Badly by Aides”. The New York Times.

^ Meacham, pp. 571-572.

^ Meacham, p. 274.

“Ex-president Bush backs war on terrorism”. UPI. September 14, 2003.

“Elder Bush says capture magical moment”. UPI. December 17, 2003.

^ Wingfield, Brian (June 12, 2004). “The 40th President; Faces in the Four Thousand”.

^ Shane, Scott (January 3, 2007). “Ford Is Remembered at Funeral in Washington”. The New York Times.

^ Healy, Patrick (May 19, 2007). “A Candidacy That May Test a Friendship’s Ties”. The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2011.

“People of the Year: Bill Clinton and George H. W. Bush”. ABC News. December 27, 2005. Retrieved September 5, 2010.

“Pa Bush endorses another Texas candidate”. UPI. October 27, 2004.

“4 U.S. presidents at Coretta King funeral”. UPI. February 7, 2006.

“President Announces Former President Bush to Lead U.S. Delegation to Attend Portuguese Inauguration”.

“Two Ex-Presidents, Often Allies, Are Divided by a Senate Race”. New York Times. September 7, 2006.

“Univision CEO Joe Uva to Receive One America Award”. National Italian American Foundation. Archived from the original on June 12, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2016.

“George H. W. Bush Endorses McCain for President”. The Washington Post. February 18, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008.

^ Neuman, Johanna (February 18, 2008). “Former President Bush Endorses McCain”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 14, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008.

“Elder Bush: ‘Beat the hell’ out of Hillary”. UPI.

“Former U.S. president Bush visits China”. UPI. March 8, 2008.

“Elder Bush says Obama will face tough job”. UPI. November 17, 2008.

“Future USS George H. W. Bush to Transit”. Naval Sea Systems Command Public Affairs. December 18, 2008. Retrieved December 22, 2008.

^ Jones, Matthew (January 10, 2009). “Carrier awaits a call to come to life in ceremony today”. The Virginian Pilot. Landmark Communications. Retrieved January 10, 2009.

“Former President Bush Visits Namesake Aircraft Carrier”.

“Bush defends Sotomayor nomination”. UPI. June 12, 2009.

“Elder Bush Decries Lack of Civility in Politics”. CBS News. October 16, 2009.

^ Baker, Peter (October 16, 2009). “Two Presidents Share a Stage on the Subject of Service”. The New York Times.

“Bush, George H.W.” Retrieved June 1, 2018.

^ For the transcript of Obama’s remarks honoring Bush, see “2010 Presidential Medal of Freedom Ceremony”. The White House. February 15, 2011.

“George H.W. Bush endorses Romney”. UPI. March 29, 2012.

^ Edwards, Breanna (July 24, 2013). “George H.W. Bush shaves head”. Politico.

“Giffords meets with George H.W. Bush”. UPI. July 7, 2013.

Baker, Peter, “Bush 41 Reunion Looks to Burnish His Legacy”, New York Times, April 3, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014.

^ Edelman, Adam, “George H.W. Bush honored with Kennedy Profile in Courage Award”, New York Daily News, May 4, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014.

“Former U.S. President Honored with Ansary Prize”. Mt. Vernon web page. Archived from the original on June 2, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2016.

Senior staff, Viebranz is identified as president and CEO of George Washington’s Mount Vernon. Retrieved June 14, 2014.

“Presidents Day 2014 — Barbara Lucas”, Lucas is identified as regent of Mount Vernon’s Ladies’ Association. Retrieved June 14, 2014.

“George H. W. Bush SKYDIVES for His 90th Birthday!”. TMZ. June 12, 2014. Retrieved July 2, 2014.

^ Jackson, David (June 12, 2014). “George H.W. Bush takes one last skydive for 90th birthday”. USA Today. Retrieved July 2, 2014.

^ @GeorgeHWBush (June 12, 2018). “It’s a wonderful day in Maine — in fact, nice enough for a parachute jump” (Tweet) – via Twitter.

^ Burliij, Terence (December 7, 2016). “George H.W. Bush and Bob Dole reunite for Pearl Harbor Anniversary”. CNN.

“Bush father, son want Jeb Bush to run for White House”. November 11, 2014.

^ Collins, Eliza. “Bush 41, 43 won’t be endorsing Trump”. USA Today.

^ Selk, Avi (November 4, 2017). “White House attacks legacies of both Bush presidents after reports they refused to vote for Trump”. The Washington Post. Retrieved November 4, 2017.

^ Bever, Lindsey (November 9, 2016). “George H. W. Bush’s message to Donald Trump”. Washington Post.

^ George, Cindy (February 4, 2017). “Former President Bush ‘fired up’ for coin toss at Houston’s Super Bowl”. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 5, 2017.

^ Estepa, Jessica (August 16, 2017). “George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush: We must reject ‘hatred in all forms'”. USA Today.

^ Shelbourne, Mallory (September 10, 2017). “Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief”. The Hill. Retrieved September 11, 2017.

^ Jump up to: a
b Gary S. Smith (June 26, 2017). “The Faith of George HW Bush”. Retrieved June 1, 2018.

“”How is 41?” Family offers update on President George H.W. Bush”. April 18, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2018.

^ Altman, Lawrence (May 10, 1991). “In Strange Twist, Bush Is Suffering From Same Gland Disease as Wife”. The New York Times. Retrieved June 5, 2018.

“THE 2000 CAMPAIGN; Ex-President Falls Ill”. Associated Press. February 25, 2000.

“Elder Bush Is Released After More Heart Tests”. The New York Times. February 24, 2000.

“President’s father faints on golf course”. UPI. March 12, 2007.

^ McAfee, Tierney (October 12, 2015). “PHOTO: George H.W. Bush Throws Out First Pitch at Astros Playoff Game in First Public Appearance Since Neck Injury”. People. Retrieved January 31, 2016.

^ Garcia, Feliks (January 18, 2017). “George HW Bush sends personal note to Donald Trump on why he can’t attend inauguration”. The Independent. Retrieved January 18, 2017.

“Former President George HW Bush hospitalised in Houston”. The Telegraph. Associated Press. April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017.

^ Bowden, John (November 25, 2017). “Bush 41 becomes longest-living president in US history”. The Hill. Washington, D.C. Retrieved November 25, 2017.

“George H.W. Bush Becomes First U.S. President to Turn 94 Years Old”. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2018.

^ Lewis, Janna (January 22, 2009). “Texans who were presidents, vice-presidents”. Fort Hood Sentinel. Fort Hood, Texas. Retrieved April 22, 2018.

“George H.W. Bush admitted to Houston hospital for blood infection”. April 23, 2018.

^ Reporters, Telegraph (April 23, 2018). “George H.W. Bush admitted to hospital days after wife’s death”. The Telegraph – via

^ Gangel, Jamie (April 24, 2018). “Former President George H.W. Bush is alert and talking, but remains in intensive care”. CNN. Retrieved November 30, 2018.

^ CNN, Maegan Vazquez,. “George H.W. Bush hospitalized”. CNN. Retrieved May 27, 2018.

^ Phillips, Kristine. “Former president George H.W. Bush is hospitalized again, spokesman says”. Retrieved May 27, 2018.

“‘I Was a Child.’ Woman Says George H.W. Bush Groped Her when She Was 16”.

^ Porter, Tom (October 25, 2017). “George H.W. Bush Apologizes After Actress Heather Lind Accuses Him of Sexual Assault”. Newsweek. Retrieved September 14, 2018.

^ Doubek, James (October 26, 2017). “George H.W. Bush Responds to Groping Allegations”. NPR. Retrieved October 29, 2017.

^ Bell, Chris (November 17, 2017). “George Bush Snr accused by interpreter”. BBC News.

MDS 18th International Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders, Volume 29, June 2014 Abstract Supplement

Impulse Control Disorders from

“Photo P012712PS-0676”. The Whitehouse. January 27, 2012. Retrieved April 24, 2013.

^ Updegrove, Mark K. (July 15, 2012). “An Exclusive Conversation with President and Mrs. Bush”. Parade. Retrieved February 15, 2017.

“Former President George H.W. Bush dead at 94”. ABC News. December 1, 2018. Retrieved December 1, 2018.

^ Nagourney, Adam (November 30, 2018). “George Bush, 41st President, Dies at 94”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2018.

“Remembering Former President George H.W. Bush’s life and legacy”. USA Today. December 1, 2018. Retrieved December 1, 2018.

^ Picht, Matt (November 30, 2018). “George H.W. Bush Defined Post-Soviet US Foreign Policy”. Newsy. Retrieved December 1, 2018.

“National Archives Accepts Bush Library as Tenth Presidential Library” (Press release). National Archives and Records Administration. November 6, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2018.

“The Birth of the Tenth Presidential Library: The Bush Presidential Materials Project, 1993–1994”. George Bush Presidential Library. Archived from the original on April 10, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.

“Bush hopes library makes history clear”. CNN. November 6, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2018.

^ Robbins, Jefferson (February 7, 1999). “Free Hand”. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 30, 2018.

^ Jump up to: a
b Heathman, Claire (July 3, 2013). “How Texas A&M became home to the George Bush Presidential Library and Museum”. The Bryan-College Station Eagle. Retrieved November 30, 2018.

“The Presidential Libraries Act after 50 Years”. Prologue Magazine. National Archives and Records Administration. 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2018.

^ Lyons, Kelan (October 19, 2017). “For alumni, the Bush School of Government & Public Service served as ‘a foundation’ for education”. The Bryan-College Station Eagle. Retrieved November 30, 2018.

Further reading

Andrew, Christopher (1996). For the President’s Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush. Harper Perennial. pp. 503–536. ISBN 9780060921781.

Barilleaux, Ryan J.; Stuckey, Mary E. (1992). Leadership and the Bush Presidency: Prudence or Drift in an Era of Change. New York: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-94418-6.

Ducat, Stephen J. (2004). The Wimp Factor: Gender Gaps, Holy Wars, and the Politics of Anxious Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-4344-8.

Duffy, Michael; Goodgame, Dan (1992). Marching in Place: The Status Quo Presidency of George Bush. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-73720-7.

Fitzwater, Marlin (1995). Call the Briefing. New York: Times Books. ISBN 978-0-7388-3458-0.

Greene, John Robert (2015). The Presidency of George Bush (2nd ed.). Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-2079-1.

Hyams, Joe (1991). Flight of the Avenger: George Bush at War. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovic. ISBN 978-0-15-131469-0.

Kelley, Kitty (2004). The Family: The True Story of the Bush Dynasty. London: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-50324-2.

Meacham, Jon (2015). Destiny and Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-6765-7.

Naftali, Timothy (2007). George H. W. Bush. Times Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-6966-2.

Patterson, James T. (2005). Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195122169.

Podhoretz, John (1993). Hell of a Ride: Backstage at the White House Follies, 1989–1993. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-79648-8.

Smith, Jean Edward (1992). George Bush’s War. New York: Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 978-0-8050-1388-7.

Sununu, John H. (2015). The Quiet Man: The Indispensable Presidency of George H. W. Bush. Broadside Books. ISBN 978-0-06-238428-7.

Updegrove, Mark K. (2017). The Last Republicans: Inside the Extraordinary Relationship between George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush. Harper. ISBN 9780062654120.

Wicker, Tom (2004). George Herbert Walker Bush. Lipper/Viking. ISBN 978-0670033034.

McBride, Tim (June 12, 2009). “The President Who Treated Me Like a Son”. The Daily Beast. Retrieved October 8, 2014.

American Experience, The Presidents: George H.W. Bush (Television production). American Experience, Public Broadcasting Service. 2008. Retrieved October 8, 2014.

Primary sources

Bush, George H. W. (1999). All the Best, George Bush: My Life in Letters and Other Writings. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-83958-5.

Bush, George H. W.; Scowcroft, Brent (1998). A World Transformed. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-43248-7.

Bush, George H. W.; Bush, Barbara (2009). “Interview with: George W. Bush, Barbara Bush” (Interview). Interviewed by McGrath, Jim. Retrieved October 8, 2014.

Bush, George W. (2014). 41: A Portrait of My Father. Crown. ISBN 978-0553447781.

Bush Koch, Dorothy (2006). My Father, My President: A Personal Account of the Life of George H. W. Bush. Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-0446579902.

Bush, George H. W. (2011). Engel, Jeffrey A., ed. The China Diary of George H. W. Bush: The Making of a Global President. Princeton UP. ISBN 978-1400829613.

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“George H. W. Bush collected news and commentary”. The New York Times.



United States Congress. “George H. W. Bush (id: B001166)”. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.


Extensive essays on Bush and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs

Appearances on C-SPAN

“Life Portrait of George H. W. Bush”, from C-SPAN‘s American Presidents: Life Portraits, December 13, 1999

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George H. W. Bush

President of the United States (1989–1993)

Vice President of the United States (1981–1989)

Director of Central Intelligence (1976–1977)

UN Ambassador (1971–1973)

U.S. Representative for TX-7 (1967–1971)


Presidential Library

Bush School of Government and Public Service

Bush compound

Death and state funeral



Environmental policy

1989 Malta Summit

Invasion of Panama

1990 Chemical Weapons Accord

Gulf War

1991 Madrid Conference

National Space Council

New world order

Somali Civil War

Unified Task Force

Negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement

Vomiting incident

Presidential pardons

International trips

Oval Office desk


Judicial appointments

Supreme Court



State of the Union Address (1990



Chicken Kiev speech


1964 United States Senate elections


United States House of Representatives elections, 1966





Republican National Convention, 1980



“a thousand points of light”

“Read my lips: no new taxes”


1980 United States presidential election




Public image

The Naked Gun 2½: The Smell of Fear (1991)

What It Takes: The Way to the White House (1993)

The Family: The Real Story of the Bush Dynasty (2004)

Bad for Democracy (2008)

Family of Secrets (2009)


A World Transformed (1998)

All the Best (1999)


Presidential Library

Medal of Freedom

Bush School of Government

Reagan Award

George Bush Intercontinental Airport

USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77)


Barbara Bush (wife)

George W. Bush (son


Jeb Bush (son)

Neil Bush (son)

Marvin Bush (son)

Dorothy Bush Koch (daughter)

Barbara Pierce Bush (granddaughter)

Jenna Bush Hager (granddaughter)

George P. Bush (grandson)

Prescott Bush (father)

Nancy Walker Bush Ellis (sister)

Jonathan Bush (brother)

William H. T. Bush (brother)

Samuel P. Bush (grandfather)

George Herbert Walker (grandfather)

Millie (family dog)

← Ronald Reagan

Bill Clinton →





Offices and distinctions

Party political offices

Preceded by
Roy Whittenburg

Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Texas
(Class 1)
1964, 1970

Succeeded by
Alan Steelman

Preceded by
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Gerald Ford

Response to the State of the Union address
Served alongside: Howard Baker, Peter Dominick, Gerald Ford, Robert Griffin, Thomas Kuchel, Mel Laird, Bob Mathias, George Murphy, Dick Poff, Chuck Percy, Al Quie, Charlotte Reid, Hugh Scott, Bill Steiger, John Tower


Title next held by

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Preceded by
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Succeeded by
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1980, 1984

Succeeded by
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Preceded by
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nominee for President of the United States
1988, 1992

Succeeded by
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Preceded by
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from Texas’s 7th congressional district

Succeeded by
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Preceded by
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Succeeded by
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Preceded by
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May 1972

Succeeded by
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Preceded by
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Succeeded by
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Preceded by
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Succeeded by
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Preceded by
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Succeeded by
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Preceded by
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Succeeded by
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Succeeded by
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Articles related to George H. W. Bush





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Theodore Roosevelt (1901)

Charles W. Fairbanks (1905–1909)

James S. Sherman (1909–1912)

Thomas R. Marshall (1913–1921)

Calvin Coolidge (1921–1923)

Charles G. Dawes (1925–1929)

Charles Curtis (1929–1933)

John N. Garner (1933–1941)

Henry A. Wallace (1941–1945)

Harry S. Truman (1945)

Alben W. Barkley (1949–1953)

Richard Nixon (1953–1961)

Lyndon B. Johnson (1961–1963)

Hubert Humphrey (1965–1969)

Spiro Agnew (1969–1973)

Gerald Ford (1973–1974)

Nelson Rockefeller (1974–1977)

Walter Mondale (1977–1981)

George H. W. Bush (1981–1989)

Dan Quayle (1989–1993)

Al Gore (1993–2001)

Dick Cheney (2001–2009)

Joe Biden (2009–2017)

Mike Pence (2017–present)









United States Ambassadors to China

Envoys to the Qing Empire

Caleb Cushing

Alexander Hill Everett

John Wesley Davis

Humphrey Marshall

Robert Milligan McLane

Peter Parker

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plentipotentiary to the Qing Empire

William Bradford Reed

John Elliott Ward

Anson Burlingame

John Ross Browne

Frederick Low

Benjamin Avery

George Seward

James Burrill Angell

John Russell Young

Charles Harvey Denby

Edwin H. Conger

William Woodville Rockhill

William J. Calhoun

Envoy to the Republic of China

Paul Samuel Reinsch

Charles Richard Crane

Jacob Gould Schurman

John Van Antwerp MacMurray

Ambassador to the Republic of China

Nelson T. Johnson

Clarence E. Gauss

Patrick J. Hurley

John Leighton Stuart

American Institute in Taiwan

Chiefs of the U.S. Liaison Office in Beijing

David K. E. Bruce

George H. W. Bush

Thomas S. Gates Jr.

Leonard Woodcock

Ambassador to the People’s Republic of China

Leonard Woodcock

Arthur W. Hummel Jr.

Winston Lord

James R. Lilley

J. Stapleton Roy

Jim Sasser

Joseph Prueher

Clark T. Randt Jr.

Jon Huntsman Jr.

Gary Locke

Max Baucus

Terry Branstad





Cold War





Non-Aligned Movement


Warsaw Pact

Cold War II


Morgenthau Plan

Hukbalahap Rebellion

Jamaican conflict


Percentages agreement

Yalta Conference

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers

Operation Priboi

Operation Jungle

Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers

Operation Unthinkable

Operation Downfall

Potsdam Conference

Gouzenko Affair

Division of Korea

Operation Masterdom

Operation Beleaguer

Operation Blacklist Forty

Iran crisis of 1946

Greek Civil War

Baruch Plan

Corfu Channel incident

Turkish Straits crisis

Restatement of Policy on Germany

First Indochina War

Truman Doctrine

Asian Relations Conference

May 1947 Crises

Marshall Plan


1948 Czechoslovak coup d’état

Al-Wathbah uprising

1947–1949 Palestine war

1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine

1948 Arab–Israeli War

1948 Palestinian exodus

Tito–Stalin Split

Berlin Blockade

Western betrayal

Iron Curtain

Eastern Bloc

Western Bloc

Chinese Civil War (Second round)

Malayan Emergency

Albanian Subversion


Papua conflict

Bamboo Curtain

Korean War


Algerian War

Egyptian Revolution of 1952

1953 Iranian coup d’état

Uprising of 1953 in East Germany

Dirty War (Mexico)

Bricker Amendment

1954 Guatemalan coup d’état

Partition of Vietnam

Jebel Akhdar War

Vietnam War

First Taiwan Strait Crisis

Cyprus crisis (1955–64)

Geneva Summit (1955)

Bandung Conference

Poznań 1956 protests

Hungarian Revolution of 1956

Yemeni–Adenese clan violence

Suez Crisis

We will bury you

Ifni War

Operation Gladio

Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957

1958 Lebanon crisis

Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis

Second Taiwan Strait Crisis

1959 Tibetan uprising

1959 Mosul uprising

Cuban Revolution

Kitchen Debate

Sino-Soviet split


Congo Crisis

Simba rebellion

1960 U-2 incident

Bay of Pigs Invasion

1960 Turkish coup d’état

Soviet–Albanian split

Iraqi–Kurdish conflict

First Iraqi–Kurdish War

Berlin Crisis of 1961

Berlin Wall

Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence

Guinea-Bissau War of Independence

Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis

El Porteñazo

Sino-Indian War

Communist insurgency in Sarawak

Iraqi Ramadan Revolution

Eritrean War of Independence

Sand War

North Yemen Civil War

Aden Emergency

1963 Syrian coup d’état

Assassination of John F. Kennedy

Vietnam War

Shifta War

Guatemalan Civil War

Colombian conflict

1964 Brazilian coup d’état

Dominican Civil War

Rhodesian Bush War

South African Border War

Transition to the New Order (Indonesia)

Domino theory

ASEAN Declaration

Laotian Civil War

1966 Syrian coup d’état

Argentine Revolution

Korean DMZ Conflict

Greek military junta of 1967–74

Years of Lead (Italy)

USS Pueblo incident

Six-Day War

War of Attrition

Dhofar Rebellion

Al-Wadiah War

Nigerian Civil War

Protests of 1968

French May

Tlatelolco massacre

Cultural Revolution

Prague Spring

1968 Polish political crisis

Communist insurgency in Malaysia

Invasion of Czechoslovakia

Iraqi Ba’athist Revolution

1969 Libyan coup d’état

Goulash Communism

Sino-Soviet border conflict

CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion

Corrective Move



Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

Black September in Jordan

Corrective Movement (Syria)

Western Sahara conflict

Nicaraguan Revolution

Cambodian Civil War

Koza riot


Ping-pong diplomacy

Uganda–Tanzania War

1971 Turkish military memorandum

Corrective Revolution (Egypt)

Four Power Agreement on Berlin

Bangladesh Liberation War

1972 Nixon visit to China

North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972

Yemenite War of 1972

Communist insurgency in Bangladesh

Eritrean Civil Wars

1973 Uruguayan coup d’état

1973 Chilean coup d’état

Yom Kippur War

1973 oil crisis

Carnation Revolution

Spanish transition


Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

Second Iraqi–Kurdish War

Angolan Civil War

Mozambican Civil War

Oromo conflict

Ogaden War

Western Sahara War

Ethiopian Civil War

Lebanese Civil War

Sino-Albanian split

Cambodian–Vietnamese War

Operation Condor

Dirty War (Argentina)

1976 Argentine coup d’état

Libyan–Egyptian War

German Autumn

Korean Air Lines Flight 902

NDF Rebellion

Chadian–Libyan conflict

Yemenite War of 1979

Grand Mosque seizure

Iranian Revolution

Saur Revolution

Sino-Vietnamese War

New Jewel Movement

1979 Herat uprising

Seven Days to the River Rhine

Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union


Soviet–Afghan War

1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts

1980 Turkish coup d’état

Peruvian conflict

Gulf of Sidra incident

Casamance conflict

Ugandan Bush War

Lord’s Resistance Army insurgency

Eritrean Civil Wars

1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War

Ndogboyosoi War

United States invasion of Grenada

Able Archer 83

Star Wars

Iran–Iraq War

Somali Rebellion

1986 Black Sea incident

South Yemen Civil War

Toyota War

1988 Black Sea bumping incident

Bougainville Civil War

8888 Uprising


Soviet reaction


Central American crisis


Korean Air Lines Flight 007

People Power Revolution



Nagorno-Karabakh War

Afghan Civil War

United States invasion of Panama

1988 Polish strikes

Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

Revolutions of 1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall

Velvet Revolution

Romanian Revolution

Peaceful Revolution

Die Wende


Mongolian Revolution of 1990

Gulf War

German reunification

Yemeni unification

Fall of communism in Albania

Breakup of Yugoslavia

Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Frozen conflicts




Puerto Rico



South Ossetia


Sino-Indian border dispute

North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine


Eisenhower Doctrine

Domino theory

Hallstein Doctrine

Kennedy Doctrine

Peaceful coexistence


Johnson Doctrine

Brezhnev Doctrine

Nixon Doctrine

Ulbricht Doctrine

Carter Doctrine

Reagan Doctrine


Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War




Chicago school



Neoclassical economics


Supply-side economics



















Ethnic nationalism








Liberal democracy

Illiberal democracy

Guided democracy

Social democracy


White supremacy

White nationalism

White separatism




Warsaw Pact







Non-Aligned Movement


Safari Club



Active measures

Crusade for Freedom



Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

Red Scare


Voice of America

Voice of Russia


Arms race

Nuclear arms race

Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

Soviet espionage in the United States

Soviet Union–United States relations

USSR–USA summits

Russian espionage in the United States

American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation

Russia–NATO relations


CIA and the Cultural Cold War

Cold War II

Russian Revolution

War on terror





List of conflicts






George W. Bush

President of the United States (2001–2009)

Governor of Texas (1995–2000)

Owner of the Texas Rangers (1989–1998)

Born July 6, 1946


First inauguration

Second inauguration

First term

Second term

Domestic policy

Legislation and programs

Economic policy

Foreign policy

International trips

Bush Doctrine

Bush–Putin meeting (2001)

Bush–Putin meeting (2005)

War in Afghanistan

Status of Forces Agreement

Patriot Act

No Child Left Behind Act

Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act

USA Freedom Corps

Department of Homeland Security

Space policy

Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

“War on Terror”

President’s Council on Service and Civic Participation


Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy

Email controversy

Judicial appointments

Supreme Court




Impeachment efforts


Presidential library

Early life

Military service controversy (Killian documents controversy and authenticity issues)

Professional life

Governorship of Texas

Prairie Chapel Ranch

Bush compound

Clinton Bush Haiti Fund


Axis of evil

Mission Accomplished

State of the Union address









United States House of Representatives elections, 1978

Texas gubernatorial election 1994


Presidential campaign 2000


Republican Party presidential primaries, 2000


Republican National Convention 2000


United States presidential election, 2000

Bush v. Gore

United States presidential election, 2004

Public image



As the subject of books and films

Fictionalized portrayals

Miss Me Yet?


A Charge to Keep (1999)

Decision Points (2010)

41: A Portrait of My Father (2014)

Portraits of Courage (2017)


Laura Bush (wife)

Barbara Pierce Bush (daughter)

Jenna Bush Hager (daughter)

George H. W. Bush (father


Barbara Bush (mother)

Robin Bush (sister)

Jeb Bush (brother)

Neil Bush (brother)

Marvin Bush (brother)

Dorothy Bush Koch (sister)

Prescott Bush (grandfather)

George P. Bush (nephew)

Barney (dog)

Miss Beazley (dog)

India (cat)

Spot Fetcher (dog)

← Bill Clinton

Barack Obama →







Cabinet of President George H. W. Bush (1989–93)



Secretary of State

James A. Baker (1989–1992)

Lawrence Eagleburger (1992–1993)

Secretary of the Treasury

Nicholas F. Brady (1989–1993)

Secretary of Defense

Dick Cheney (1989–1993)

Attorney General

Richard L. Thornburgh (1989–1991)

William Pelham Barr (1991–1993)

Secretary of the Interior

Manuel Lujan Jr. (1989–1993)

Secretary of Agriculture

Clayton K. Yeutter (1989–1991)

Edward R. Madigan (1991–1993)

Secretary of Commerce

Robert Mosbacher (1989–1992)

Barbara Hackman Franklin (1992–1993)

Secretary of Labor

Elizabeth Dole (1989–1991)

Lynn Martin (1991–1993)

Secretary of Health and Human Services

Louis W. Sullivan (1989–1993)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Jack Kemp (1989–1993)

Secretary of Transportation

Samuel K. Skinner (1989–1992)

Andrew Card (1992–1993)

Secretary of Energy

James D. Watkins (1989–1993)

Secretary of Education

Lauro F. Cavazos (1989–1990)

Lamar Alexander (1991–1993)

Secretary of Veterans Affairs

Ed Derwinski (1989–1992)



Vice President

Dan Quayle (1989–1993)

White House Chief of Staff

John H. Sununu (1989–1991)

Samuel K. Skinner (1991–1992)

James A. Baker (1992–1993)

Director of the Office of
Management and Budget

Richard Darman (1989–1993)

Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency

William Reilly (1989–1992)

None (1992–1993)

Trade Representative

Carla A. Hills (1989–1993)

Ambassador to the United Nations

Thomas Pickering (1989–1992)

Edward Perkins (1992–1993)

Assistants to the President
for National Security Advisor

Brent Scowcroft (1989–1993)

Director of the Office of
National Drug Control Policy

William J. Bennett (1989–1991)

Bob Martinez (1991–1993)

Chairperson of the
Council of Economic Advisers

Michael Boskin (1989–1993)






Cabinet of President Ronald Reagan (1981–89)



Secretary of State

Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1981–82)

George P. Shultz (1982–89)

Secretary of the Treasury

Donald T. Regan (1981–85)

James A. Baker (1985–88)

Nicholas F. Brady (1988–89)

Secretary of Defense

Caspar W. Weinberger (1981–87)

Frank C. Carlucci (1987–89)

Attorney General

William French Smith (1981–85)

Edwin Meese (1985–88)

Richard L. Thornburgh (1988–89)

Secretary of the Interior

James G. Watt (1981–83)

William P. Clark (1983–85)

Donald P. Hodel (1985–89)

Secretary of Agriculture

John R. Block (1981–86)

Richard E. Lyng (1986–89)

Secretary of Commerce

Malcolm Baldrige (1981–87)

C. William Verity (1987–89)

Secretary of Labor

Raymond J. Donovan (1981–85)

William E. Brock III (1985–87)

Ann Dore McLaughlin (1987–89)

Secretary of Health
and Human Services

Richard S. Schweiker (1981–83)

Margaret M. Heckler (1983–85)

Otis Bowen (1985–89)

Secretary of Housing
and Urban Development

Samuel R. Pierce (1981–89)

Secretary of Transportation

Drew Lewis (1981–83)

Elizabeth H. Dole (1983–87)

James H. Burnley IV (1987–89)

Secretary of Energy

James B. Edwards (1981–83)

Donald P. Hodel (1983–85)

John S. Herrington (1985–89)

Secretary of Education

Terrel H. Bell (1981–85)

William J. Bennett (1985–88)

Lauro F. Cavazos (1988–89)



Vice President

George H. W. Bush (1981–89)

White House Chief of Staff

James A. Baker (1981–85)

Donald T. Regan (1985–87)

Howard H. Baker Jr. (1987–88)

Kenneth M. Duberstein (1988–89)

Director of the Office of
Management and Budget

David Stockman (1981–85)

James C. Miller III (1985–88)

Joseph R. Wright Jr. (1988–89)

Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency

Anne M. Gorsuch (1981–83)

William D. Ruckelshaus (1983–85)

Lee M. Thomas (1985–89)

Director of Central Intelligence

William J. Casey (1981–87)

William H. Webster (1987–89)

Ambassador to the United Nations

Jeane Kirkpatrick (1981–85)

Vernon A. Walters (1985–89)

Trade Representative

William E. Brock III (1981–85)

Clayton K. Yeutter (1985–89)

Chairperson of the
Council of Economic Advisers

Murray L. Weidenbaum (1981–82)

Martin S. Feldstein (1982–84)

Beryl W. Sprinkel (1985–89)





Order of precedence in the United States of America*

The President

The Vice President

The Governor (of the state in which the event is held)

The Speaker of the House

The Chief Justice

Former President Carter

Former President G. H. W. Bush

Former President Clinton

Former President G. W. Bush

Former President Obama

Ambassadors of the United States

The Secretary of State

The Associate Justices

Retired Justice Stevens

Retired Justice O’Connor

Retired Justice Kennedy

Retired Justice Souter

The President’s Cabinet

The President Pro Tempore of the Senate

The Senate

The Governors of the States (by order of statehood)

Former Vice President Mondale

Former Vice President Quayle

Former Vice President Gore

Former Vice President Cheney

Former Vice President Biden

The House of Representatives

*not including acting officeholders, visiting dignitaries, auxiliary executive and military personnel and most diplomats






(1964 ←)    United States presidential election, 1968    (→ 1972)

United States elections, 1968

Republican Party




Richard Nixon


VP nominee

Spiro Agnew


Frank Carlson

Clifford P. Case

Hiram Fong

John Lindsay

Ronald Reagan

Jim Rhodes

Nelson Rockefeller

Winthrop Rockefeller

George W. Romney


Harold Stassen

John Volpe

Democratic Party





Hubert Humphrey


VP nominee

Edmund Muskie


Roger D. Branigin

John G. Crommelin

Paul C. Fisher

Lyndon B. Johnson

Robert F. Kennedy (campaign)

Thomas C. Lynch

Eugene McCarthy (campaign)

George McGovern

Dan K. Moore

Channing E. Phillips

George Smathers

Stephen M. Young

American Independent Party


George Wallace


VP nominee

Curtis LeMay


Other third party and independent

Communist Party


Charlene Mitchell

VP nominee

Michael Zagarell

Peace and Freedom Party


Eldridge Cleaver

VP nominee

Douglas Fitzgerald Dowd

Prohibition Party


E. Harold Munn

Socialist Labor Party


Henning A. Blomen

Socialist Workers Party


Fred Halstead

VP nominee

Paul Boutelle

Independents and other candidates

Dick Gregory

Pat Paulsen


Other 1968 elections: House







(1976 ←) United States presidential election, 1980 (→ 1984)

Republican Party



Primary results


Ronald Reagan

VP nominee

George H. W. Bush


John B. Anderson

Howard Baker

George H. W. Bush

John Connally

Phil Crane

Bob Dole

Ben Fernandez

Harold Stassen

Democratic Party



Primary results


Jimmy Carter

VP nominee

Walter Mondale


Jerry Brown

Ted Kennedy

Ron Dellums



John B. Anderson

VP candidate

Patrick Lucey


Other independent and third party

Citizens Party


Barry Commoner

VP nominee

LaDonna Harris

Libertarian Party


Ed Clark

VP nominee

David Koch

Prohibition Party


Ben Bubar

VP nominee

Earl Dodge

Socialist Party


David McReynolds

VP nominee

Diane Drufenbrock

Socialist Workers Party


Andrew Pulley

Alternate nominees

Richard Congress

Clifton DeBerry

Workers World Party


Deirdre Griswold

VP nominee

Gavrielle Holmes

Independents and other candidates

Lyndon LaRouche

Maureen Smith

Running mate

Elizabeth Cervantes Barron

Warren Spannaus

Other 1980 elections









(1980 ←) United States presidential election, 1984 (→ 1988)

Republican Party



Primary results


Ronald Reagan

VP nominee

George H. W. Bush


Ben Fernandez

Harold Stassen

Democratic Party



Primary results


Walter Mondale

VP nominee

Geraldine Ferraro


Reubin Askew

Alan Cranston

John Glenn

Gary Hart

Fritz Hollings

Jesse Jackson

George McGovern


Third party and independent

Citizens Party


Sonia Johnson

VP nominee

Richard Walton

Communist Party


Gus Hall

VP nominee

Angela Davis

Libertarian Party


David Bergland

VP nominee

Jim Lewis


Gene Burns

Earl Ravenal

Mary Ruwart

Prohibition Party


Earl Dodge

Socialist Equality Party


Edward Winn

VP nominee

Helen Halyard

Socialist Party


Sonia Johnson

VP nominee

Richard Walton

Socialist Workers Party


Melvin T. Mason

VP nominee

Matilde Zimmermann

Workers World Party


Larry Holmes

Alternate nominee

Gavrielle Holmes

VP nominee

Gloria La Riva

Independents and other candidates

Charles Doty

Larry Flynt

Larry “Bozo” Harmon

Lyndon LaRouche

Running mate

Billy Davis

Other 1984 elections








(1984 ←) United States presidential election, 1988 (→ 1992)

Republican Party


Primary results


George H. W. Bush

VP nominee

Dan Quayle


Bob Dole

Pete du Pont

Ben Fernandez

Alexander Haig

Jack Kemp

Paul Laxalt

Isabell Masters

Pat Robertson

Donald Rumsfeld

Harold Stassen

Democratic Party


Primary results


Michael Dukakis


VP nominee

Lloyd Bentsen


Douglas Applegate

Bruce Babbitt

Joe Biden


David Duke

Dick Gephardt

Al Gore


Gary Hart

Jesse Jackson


Lyndon LaRouche

Andy Martin

Patricia Schroeder

Paul Simon

James Traficant


Third party and independent

Libertarian Party


Ron Paul (campaign)

VP nominee

Andre Marrou


Jim Lewis

Russell Means

New Alliance Party


Lenora Fulani

Populist Party


David Duke

Prohibition Party


Earl Dodge

VP nominee

George Ormsby

Socialist Equality Party


Edward Winn

Socialist Party


Willa Kenoyer

VP nominee

Ron Ehrenreich

Socialist Workers Party


James Warren

VP nominee

Kathleen Mickells

Workers World Party


Larry Holmes

VP nominee

Gloria La Riva

Independents and others

Jack Herer

Lyndon LaRouche

Herbert G. Lewin

William A. Marra

Eugene McCarthy

Other 1988 elections: House








(1988 ←) United States presidential election, 1992 (→ 1996)

Democratic Party



Nominee Bill Clinton (campaign)

VP nominee Al Gore

Candidates Larry Agran

Jerry Brown

Tom Harkin

Bob Kerrey

Lyndon LaRouche

Tom Laughlin

Eugene McCarthy

Paul Tsongas

Douglas Wilder

Charles Woods

Republican Party



Nominee George H. W. Bush

VP nominee Dan Quayle

Candidates Pat Buchanan

David Duke

Jack Fellure

Isabell Masters

Pat Paulsen

Tennie Rogers

Harold Stassen


Candidate Ross Perot (campaign)

VP candidate James Stockdale


Other independent and third party

Libertarian Party



Andre Marrou

VP nominee

Nancy Lord

Natural Law Party


John Hagelin

VP nominee

Mike Tompkins

New Alliance Party


Lenora Fulani

VP nominee

Maria Elizabeth Muñoz

Prohibition Party


Earl Dodge

VP nominee

George Ormsby

Socialist Party USA


J. Quinn Brisben

VP nominee

Barbara Garson

Socialist Workers Party


James Warren

VP nominee

Willie Mae Reid

U.S. Taxpayers Party



Howard Phillips

VP nominee

Albion W. Knight, Jr.

Workers World Party


Gloria La Riva

VP nominee

Larry Holmes

Independents and other candidates

Ronald Daniels (Running mate: Asiba Tupahache)

Bo Gritz

Isabell Masters

Other 1992 elections








Time Persons of the Year


Charles Lindbergh (1927)

Walter Chrysler (1928)

Owen D. Young (1929)

Mohandas Gandhi (1930)

Pierre Laval (1931)

Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932)

Hugh S. Johnson (1933)

Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934)

Haile Selassie (1935)

Wallis Simpson (1936)

Chiang Kai-shek / Soong Mei-ling (1937)

Adolf Hitler (1938)

Joseph Stalin (1939)

Winston Churchill (1940)

Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941)

Joseph Stalin (1942)

George Marshall (1943)

Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944)

Harry S. Truman (1945)

James F. Byrnes (1946)

George Marshall (1947)

Harry S. Truman (1948)

Winston Churchill (1949)

The American Fighting-Man (1950)


Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951)

Elizabeth II (1952)

Konrad Adenauer (1953)

John Foster Dulles (1954)

Harlow Curtice (1955)

Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956)

Nikita Khrushchev (1957)

Charles de Gaulle (1958)

Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959)

U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960)

John F. Kennedy (1961)

Pope John XXIII (1962)

Martin Luther King Jr. (1963)

Lyndon B. Johnson (1964)

William Westmoreland (1965)

The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966)

Lyndon B. Johnson (1967)

The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968)

The Middle Americans (1969)

Willy Brandt (1970)

Richard Nixon (1971)

Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972)

John Sirica (1973)

King Faisal (1974)

American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)


Jimmy Carter (1976)

Anwar Sadat (1977)

Deng Xiaoping (1978)

Ayatollah Khomeini (1979)

Ronald Reagan (1980)

Lech Wałęsa (1981)

The Computer (1982)

Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983)

Peter Ueberroth (1984)

Deng Xiaoping (1985)

Corazon Aquino (1986)

Mikhail Gorbachev (1987)

The Endangered Earth (1988)

Mikhail Gorbachev (1989)

George H. W. Bush (1990)

Ted Turner (1991)

Bill Clinton (1992)

The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F. W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993)

Pope John Paul II (1994)

Newt Gingrich (1995)

David Ho (1996)

Andrew Grove (1997)

Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998)

Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999)

George W. Bush (2000)


Rudolph Giuliani (2001)

The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002)

The American Soldier (2003)

George W. Bush (2004)

The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005)

You (2006)

Vladimir Putin (2007)

Barack Obama (2008)

Ben Bernanke (2009)

Mark Zuckerberg (2010)

The Protester (2011)

Barack Obama (2012)

Pope Francis (2013)

Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly / Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah (2014)

Angela Merkel (2015)

Donald Trump (2016)

The Silence Breakers (2017)







Theodore Roosevelt Award winners

1967: Eisenhower

1968: Saltonstall

1969: White

1970: Hovde

1971: Kraft Jr.

1972: Holland

1973: Bradley

1974: Owens

1975: Ford

1976: Hamilton

1977: Bradley

1978: Zornow

1979: Chandler

1980: Cooley

1981: Linkletter

1982: Cosby

1983: Palmer

1984: Lawrence

1985: Fleming

1986: Bush

1987: Zable

1988: Not presented

1989: Ebert

1990: Reagan

1991: Gibson

1992: Kemp

1993: Alexander

1994: Johnson

1995: Mathias

1996: Wooden

1997: Payne

1998: Dole

1999: Richardson

2000: Staubach

2001: Cohen

2002: Shriver

2003: de Varona

2004: Page

2005: Ride

2006: Kraft

2007: Tagliabue

2008: Glenn

2009: Albright

2010: Mitchell

2011: Dunwoody

2012: Allen

2013: Dungy

2014: Mills

2015: Jackson

2016: Ueberroth

2017: Brooke-Marciniak





National Football Foundation Gold Medal winners

1958: Dwight D. Eisenhower

1959: Douglas MacArthur

1960: Herbert Hoover & Amos Alonzo Stagg

1961: John F. Kennedy

1962: Byron “Whizzer” White

1963: Roger Blough

1964: Donold B. Lourie

1965: Juan T. Trippe

1966: Earl H. “Red” Blaik

1967: Frederick L. Hovde

1968: Chester J. LaRoche

1969: Richard Nixon

1970: Thomas J. Hamilton

1971: Ronald Reagan

1972: Gerald Ford

1973: John Wayne

1974: Gerald B. Zornow

1975: David Packard

1976: Edgar B. Speer

1977: Louis H. Wilson

1978: Vincent dePaul Draddy

1979: William P. Lawrence

1980: Walter J. Zable

1981: Justin W. Dart

1982: Silver Anniversary Awards (NCAA) – All Honored Jim Brown, Willie Davis, Jack Kemp, Ron Kramer, Jim Swink

1983: Jack Kemp

1984: John F. McGillicuddy

1985: William I. Spencer

1986: William H. Morton

1987: Charles R. Meyer

1988: Clinton E. Frank

1989: Paul Brown

1990: Thomas H. Moorer

1991: George H. W. Bush

1992: Donald R. Keough

1993: Norman Schwarzkopf

1994: Thomas S. Murphy

1995: Harold Alfond

1996: Gene Corrigan

1997: Jackie Robinson

1998: John H. McConnell

1999: Keith Jackson

2000: Fred M. Kirby II

2001: Billy Joe “Red” McCombs

2002: George Steinbrenner

2003: Tommy Franks

2004: William V. Campbell

2005: Jon F. Hanson

2006: Joe Paterno & Bobby Bowden

2007: Pete Dawkins & Roger Staubach

2008: John Glenn

2009: Phil Knight & Bill Bowerman

2010: Bill Cosby

2011: Robert Gates

2012: Roscoe Brown

2013: National Football League & Roger Goodell

2014: Tom Catena & George Weiss

2015: Condoleezza Rice

2016: Archie Manning






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